vaccination as a control tool in bovine tuberculosis social media monitoring to assess CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Vaccination as a Control Tool in Bovine Tuberculosis: Social Media Monitoring to Assess Public Response to Government Policy Development and Implementation
Abstract: Vaccine hesitancy does not only concern human vaccines but incorporates One Health policies also; including vaccination of cattle and badgers as part of the governments bovine tuberculosis eradication strategy for England. Both digital and social media can propagate healthcare misinformation and thus affect vaccine policy support. The use of social media monitoring to understand real-time public perceptions of One Health policies is crucial to identify misinformation and address public concerns appropriately to achieve successful policy implementation. Digital and social media data surrounding two government announcements regarding the bovine tuberculosis eradication strategy for England were collected and screened using the Meltwater media monitoring platform. Communication patterns were studied using InfraNodus. Twitter analysis was conducted to identify key influencers public engagement and trending communications. Online social media activity increased rapidly after each announcement. Initially badger culling took primary public concern and major influencers were identified. Cattle vaccination dominated discussion after the second announcement with public perception being influenced by increased online activity from news sites animal welfare charities governmental bodies and medical professionals. The greatest ambiguity towards the strategy was detected within farming communities with the main disparity existing between cattle vaccination and badger culling opinions. Social media monitoring has potential use in surveying public perception of government policy both prior to and after implementation to identify and address areas of miscommunication and misinformation to improve public support for One Health policies.
Published: 2021-03-29
Journal: Vaccines (Basel)
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9040314
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040314
Author Name: Dicks Frederika
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/dicks_frederika
Author Name: Marks Tatjana
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/marks_tatjana
Author Name: Karafillakis Emilie
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/karafillakis_emilie
Author Name: Chambers Mark A
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/chambers_mark_a
sha: 1110476254c9f3c107d92340585c9b12769f9730
license: cc-by
license_url: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
source_x: Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 33805272
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33805272
pmcid: PMC8067211
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067211
url: https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040314 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33805272/
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: betweenness bTB vaccine wildlife Vaccine post-Announcement-1 www.meltwater.com/en canine Parvovirus hashtags b) Announcement-2 Meltwater Food pre-Annoucement-1 Announcements-1 vaccine' bovine BCG vaccine people bTB San Francisco Sky News badgers [11 cattle vaccines noisiest Annoucement-1 (Figure 1a Bacillus Calmette-Guérin cattlevets participants Annoucement-1 Announcment-2 COVID-19 humans Britishvets ever-broader CEO Announcement-2 CVF Bovine TB vaccine wildlife trusts badger retweets InfraNodus CA network structure-either Vaccines 2021 human Figure 4 defragovuk nodes badgers UK aphagovuk bovine cattle FD pre-Announcement-1 post-Annoucement-1 NHS lines 5,534,464 Annoucement-2 cattle BCG vaccine Announcement-2 post-Announcement-1 CVF node Retweets coronavirus Announcement-1 cattle vaccine pre-announcement badgers [26 [18] MC livestock Wales' [18] . children FD Hons extramural
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The last twenty years have been a revolution for the internet, leading to the globalized access of vast amounts of information. Yet, with this increasing online access and the birth of a multitude of digital and social media platforms, the generation of misinformation has arisen. Distrust in the medical and government communities is not a novel, nor an isolated phenomenon [1] : confidence in the British public health authorities has peaked and troughed throughout the years, and unsurprisingly vaccination support has followed suit [2] . Whilst the birth of social and online media has enabled the spread of information regarding public health vaccine progress, the contagion and amplification of vaccination controversies online have become apparent. A prominent digital and social media issue is the notable rise and dissemination of unchecked, false information from both disreputable and in some cases reputable [3] sources, which is becoming an important dilemma for public health systems today [4] . One such dilemma that has arisen from such misinformation is that of vaccine hesitancy, with NHS childhood vaccination statistics for England 2018-2019 reporting coverage has declined in all routine vaccinations for children under five years old [5] . Vaccine hesitancy has also extended to animal vaccination settings, including canine Parvovirus vaccination [6] , with increasing numbers of owners opting not to vaccinate their pets on the basis of misinformation and concerns. Considering the human-animal bond in many households, it is reasonable to draw comparison between the decline of human vaccination and that of companion animal vaccination. Vaccination as a means of disease control has been part of livestock health management for decades and contributes enormous benefit both to the agricultural economy and public health. The implementation of an animal brucellosis vaccination program in Western Greece embodies this benefit, whereby incidence rates in both humans and animals decreased significantly [7] . Yet, despite numerous success stories, vaccination remains one of the most debated public health topics on social media platforms [8] . Agenda-setting theory states that content widely shared or trending in the news can impact public opinions by increasing the perceived saliency of specific issues [9] . Additionally, some media or news channels may also influence the areas of focus of other channels, referred to as intermedia agenda setting [10] . An unexplored question is to what extent and in what manner have digital and social media influenced opinion regarding livestock (and wildlife) vaccination? To address this question, we have used social listening tools to understand public opinion and perception of government policy for the intended control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) from England. This is an especially pertinent example, since an iconic and protected wildlife species, the European badger (Meles meles), is implicated in transmission of the bacterium that causes bTB. It is generally recognized that elimination of the disease in cattle will be extremely difficult without measures to control the disease in badgers [11] . Government policy for England (as devised by the Department for Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and ratified by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) currently includes the highly contentious licensed culling and/or vaccination of badgers, combined with the routine test-and-slaughter of cattle [12] . Badger culling has been a controversial topic since its introduction in 2013, resulting in widespread media coverage. A 2014 YouGov survey of around 2000 adults in the UK suggested that whilst only 36% supported badger culling to reduce tuberculosis (TB) transmission, the remaining 64% determined it should not proceed or did not know. The poll revealed that 57% of participants believed the 2014 government handled the issue of TB in badgers and cattle poorly [13] . In March 2020, Defra outlined one of the biggest shifts in bTB control policy for decades; indicating the cessation of badger culling in favor of increased use of the licensed badger vaccine and a concerted effort to license a vaccine for use in cattle [14] . The primary objective of this study was to analyze online public attitudes and perceptions towards elements of a revised government strategy to achieve bTB-free status in England by 2038 [14] . We focused on two announcements (5 March 2020 and 22 July 2020) of the introduction of a bovine vaccination program using the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the phasing out of badger culling, and increased use of badger vaccination. Digital and social media posts surrounding these announcements were evaluated and a comparative qualitative analysis was performed to identify structural gaps between the government policy statements and public understanding. Given our 'online' status as a society, it has been recognized that listening to both
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: cattle vaccines 5,534,464 www.meltwater.com/en Annoucement-2 InfraNodus defragovuk [18] wildlife noisiest Meltwater Figure 4 Vaccine children Announcement-2 cattle vaccine San Francisco Bovine TB vaccine post-Annoucement-1 Announcment-2's Announcment-2 bovine BCG vaccine human wildlife trusts Annoucement-1 Annoucement-1 (Figure 1a badgers [11 UK pre-Annoucement-1 2018–2019 retweets badgers [26 post-Announcement-1 aphagovuk Sky News vaccine' NHS humans people bTB vaccine bTB badger Britishvets Announcement-1 pre-announcement livestock hashtags bovine cattle nodes Announcements- 1 Food CA Retweets cattle BCG vaccine 's canine Parvovirus cattlevets CEO coronavirus badgers ever-broader Bacillus Calmette-Guérin COVID-19 participants pre-Announcement-1
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The last twenty years have been a revolution for the internet, leading to the globalized access of vast amounts of information. Yet, with this increasing online access and the birth of a multitude of digital and social media platforms, the generation of misinformation has arisen. Distrust in the medical and government communities is not a novel, nor an isolated phenomenon [1]: confidence in the British public health authorities has peaked and troughed throughout the years, and unsurprisingly vaccination support has followed suit [2]. Whilst the birth of social and online media has enabled the spread of information regarding public health vaccine progress, the contagion and amplification of vaccination controversies online have become apparent. A prominent digital and social media issue is the notable rise and dissemination of unchecked, false information from both disreputable and in some cases reputable [3] sources, which is becoming an important dilemma for public health systems today [4]. One such dilemma that has arisen from such misinformation is that of vaccine hesitancy, with NHS childhood vaccination statistics for England 2018–2019 reporting coverage has declined in all routine vaccinations for children under five years old [5]. Vaccine hesitancy has also extended to animal vaccination settings, including canine Parvovirus vaccination [6], with increasing numbers of owners opting not to vaccinate their pets on the basis of misinformation and concerns. Considering the human-animal bond in many households, it is reasonable to draw comparison between the decline of human vaccination and that of companion animal vaccination. Vaccination as a means of disease control has been part of livestock health management for decades and contributes enormous benefit both to the agricultural economy and public health. The implementation of an animal brucellosis vaccination program in Western Greece embodies this benefit, whereby incidence rates in both humans and animals decreased significantly [7]. Yet, despite numerous success stories, vaccination remains one of the most debated public health topics on social media platforms [8]. Agenda-setting theory states that content widely shared or trending in the news can impact public opinions by increasing the perceived saliency of specific issues [9]. Additionally, some media or news channels may also influence the areas of focus of other channels, referred to as intermedia agenda setting [10]. An unexplored question is to what extent and in what manner have digital and social media influenced opinion regarding livestock (and wildlife) vaccination? To address this question, we have used social listening tools to understand public opinion and perception of government policy for the intended control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) from England. This is an especially pertinent example, since an iconic and protected wildlife species, the European badger (Meles meles), is implicated in transmission of the bacterium that causes bTB. It is generally recognized that elimination of the disease in cattle will be extremely difficult without measures to control the disease in badgers [11]. Government policy for England (as devised by the Department for Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and ratified by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) currently includes the highly contentious licensed culling and/or vaccination of badgers, combined with the routine test-and-slaughter of cattle [12]. Badger culling has been a controversial topic since its introduction in 2013, resulting in widespread media coverage. A 2014 YouGov survey of around 2000 adults in the UK suggested that whilst only 36% supported badger culling to reduce tuberculosis (TB) transmission, the remaining 64% determined it should not proceed or did not know. The poll revealed that 57% of participants believed the 2014 government handled the issue of TB in badgers and cattle poorly [13]. In March 2020, Defra outlined one of the biggest shifts in bTB control policy for decades; indicating the cessation of badger culling in favor of increased use of the licensed badger vaccine and a concerted effort to license a vaccine for use in cattle [14]. The primary objective of this study was to analyze online public attitudes and perceptions towards elements of a revised government strategy to achieve bTB-free status in England by 2038 [14]. We focused on two announcements (5 March 2020 and 22 July 2020) of the introduction of a bovine vaccination program using the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the phasing out of badger culling, and increased use of badger vaccination. Digital and social media posts surrounding these announcements were evaluated and a comparative qualitative analysis was performed to identify structural gaps between the government policy statements and public understanding. Given our 'online' status as a society, it has been recognized that listening to both digital and so
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