three lessons for the covid 19 response from pandemic hiv CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Three lessons for the COVID-19 response from pandemic HIV
Published: 2020-04-13
Journal: Lancet HIV
DOI: 10.1016/s2352-3018(20)30110-7
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/s2352-3018(20)30110-7
Author Name: Hargreaves James
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hargreaves_james
Author Name: Davey Calum
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/davey_calum
Author Name: Auerbach Judith
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/auerbach_judith
Author Name: Blanchard Jamie
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/blanchard_jamie
Author Name: Bond Virginia
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/bond_virginia
Author Name: Bonell Chris
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/bonell_chris
Author Name: Burgess Rochelle
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/burgess_rochelle
Author Name: Busza Joanna
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/busza_joanna
Author Name: Colbourn Tim
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/colbourn_tim
Author Name: Cowan Frances
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/cowan_frances
Author Name: Doyle Aoife
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/doyle_aoife
Author Name: Hakim James
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hakim_james
Author Name: Hensen Bernadette
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hensen_bernadette
Author Name: Hosseinipour Mina
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hosseinipour_mina
Author Name: Lin Leesa
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/lin_leesa
Author Name: Johnson Saul
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/johnson_saul
Author Name: Masuka Nyasha
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/masuka_nyasha
Author Name: Mavhu Webster
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mavhu_webster
Author Name: Mugurungi Owen
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mugurungi_owen
Author Name: Mukungunugwa Solomon
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mukungunugwa_solomon
Author Name: Mushavi Angela
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mushavi_angela
Author Name: Phillips Andrew
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/phillips_andrew
Author Name: Platt Lucy
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/platt_lucy
Author Name: Prost Audrey
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/prost_audrey
Author Name: Ruzagira Eugene
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/ruzagira_eugene
Author Name: Seeley Janet
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/seeley_janet
Author Name: Taramusi Isaac
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/taramusi_isaac
Author Name: Yekeye Raymond
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/yekeye_raymond
sha: 38b80722751f38372c5e22d0d64d265079a1e727
license: els-covid
license_url: https://www.elsevier.com/about/policies/open-access-licenses/elsevier-user-license
source_x: Elsevier; Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.elsevier.com/https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 32298644
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32298644
pmcid: PMC7195084
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195084
url: https://doi.org/10.1016/s2352-3018(20)30110-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32298644/ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352301820301107 https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/pii/S2352301820301107
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: Abstain COVID-19, 1 SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 men women UK coronavirus 2 coronavirus disease 2019 self-quarantine COVID-19. left people † james.hargreaves@lshtm.ac.uk †For LMICs appendix Calum Davey
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The HIV pandemic provides lessons for the response to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: no vaccine is available for either and there are no licensed pharmaceuticals for COVID-19, just as there was not for HIV infection in the early years. Population behaviour will determine the pandemic trajectory of COVID-19, 1 just as it did for HIV. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV are, of course, different. Untreated HIV infection usually causes death; SARS-CoV-2 kills a minority. Behaviour changes that will slow transmission are different: sexual behaviour and needle sharing for HIV, physical proximity and hand washing for SARS-CoV-2. Early HIV cases doubled over 6-12 months, 2 for SARS-CoV-2 the serial interval is a matter of days. 1 A severe COVID-19 epidemic in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) with weak health systems is a sobering prospect. In many ways, the history of HIV prevention is of a failure of global health. Some 32 million have died with sub-Saharan Africa worst affected. 3 But critical lessons have been learnt: three stand out. First, there is a need to anticipate health inequalities. Pandemic HIV transmission accelerated among mobile, well-connected networks, but the burden shifted to poorer people and countries, young women, and marginalised groups. 4 The global burden of COVID-19 will likely fall hardest among older people and vulnerable groups in LMICs. 5 We must track the socioeconomic status and gender of those affected and extend this effort to track the economic impacts. UN member states have pledged that "no one will be left behind". The global response to COVID-19 must honour this pledge. Social conditions make it difficult for the vulnerable to change behaviours. Encouragement to "Abstain, Be Faithful and Use Condoms" could not prevent HIV where gender inequalities and stigma were the norm. Similarly, following instructions to wash hands and ensure physical distancing will be hardest for those living in poverty. Public-health initiatives must overcome barriers to reach poor people, even if they seem to be less affected by the virus now. New advances often most rapidly benefit the better off, increasing inequalities. 6 Rich countries might seek to prioritise vaccine doses for their own people. Millions of less well-off people died because of inequitable access to life-saving antiretrovirals, and the same trend might occur with COVID-19. 7 Global policy must prioritise access to innovations for those individuals in greatest need. COVID-19 will not affect everyone equally. Our efforts should acknowledge this inequality, not increase it. Second, create an enabling environment to support behaviour change. Fast, decisive political leadership is crucial. School closures and quarantine measures are powerful tools. But the lesson of HIV is that supporting safer behaviours means addressing structures that constrain or enable people's choices. Just as gender-based violence hindered safer sexual behaviour choices for women, the scarcity of clean water will limit handwashing. In the short term, pragmatic responses such as rapid mass distribution of soap, sanitiser, and personal protective equipment for SARS-CoV-2 will be needed (just as female condom distribution was for HIV control). Modern approaches to HIV prevention are driven by a social-ecological framework. 8 Meaningful involvement of communities can shape social norms. Building social capital, trust, and community cohesion catalyses the impact of health messages, and can be fostered by supporting local leadership. 9 These dynamics accelerated control of HIV among gay men in the USA, sex workers in India and Thailand, and other communities. The design of the COVID-19 response will need to include older people, those with comorbidities, and those already living at the margin. Unintended social consequences must be avoided. Laws that contribute to blaming in society lead to prejudice, which hampered efforts to control HIV. If people infected with SARS-CoV-2 become stigmatised, others could be less likely to self-quarantine. Similarly, the unfolding global economic upheaval will have resounding impacts on LMICs that might exacerbate the conditions that spread SARS-CoV-2, for example leading to social upheaval. We must be attentive to these dynamics from the start. Third, a multidisciplinary effort is essential. Epidemiological models can predict the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. But a multidisciplinary effort is essential to design, characterise, and evaluate interventions that can shape behaviour. Innovative elements of the HIV response include structured community mobilisation, targeted social protection, and differentiated health-care delivery. 10 Implementation science approaches have allowed timely study of novel health care and social delivery models. LMICs must gain access to protective and sanitation equipment before their epidemics grow. Testing programmes must star
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: self-quarantine COVID-19 Abstain left coronavirus 2 coronavirus disease 2019 SARS-CoV-2 " leadership.9 health-care delivery.10 COVID-19,1 people women men LMICs
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The HIV pandemic provides lessons for the response to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: no vaccine is available for either and there are no licensed pharmaceuticals for COVID-19, just as there was not for HIV infection in the early years. Population behaviour will determine the pandemic trajectory of COVID-19,1 just as it did for HIV. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV are, of course, different. Untreated HIV infection usually causes death; SARS-CoV-2 kills a minority. Behaviour changes that will slow transmission are different: sexual behaviour and needle sharing for HIV, physical proximity and hand washing for SARS-CoV-2. Early HIV cases doubled over 6–12 months,2 for SARS-CoV-2 the serial interval is a matter of days.1 A severe COVID-19 epidemic in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) with weak health systems is a sobering prospect. In many ways, the history of HIV prevention is of a failure of global health. Some 32 million have died with sub-Saharan Africa worst affected.3 But critical lessons have been learnt: three stand out. First, there is a need to anticipate health inequalities. Pandemic HIV transmission accelerated among mobile, well-connected networks, but the burden shifted to poorer people and countries, young women, and marginalised groups.4 The global burden of COVID-19 will likely fall hardest among older people and vulnerable groups in LMICs.5 We must track the socioeconomic status and gender of those affected and extend this effort to track the economic impacts. UN member states have pledged that "no one will be left behind". The global response to COVID-19 must honour this pledge. Social conditions make it difficult for the vulnerable to change behaviours. Encouragement to "Abstain, Be Faithful and Use Condoms" could not prevent HIV where gender inequalities and stigma were the norm. Similarly, following instructions to wash hands and ensure physical distancing will be hardest for those living in poverty. Public-health initiatives must overcome barriers to reach poor people, even if they seem to be less affected by the virus now. New advances often most rapidly benefit the better off, increasing inequalities.6 Rich countries might seek to prioritise vaccine doses for their own people. Millions of less well-off people died because of inequitable access to life-saving antiretrovirals, and the same trend might occur with COVID-19.7 Global policy must prioritise access to innovations for those individuals in greatest need. COVID-19 will not affect everyone equally. Our efforts should acknowledge this inequality, not increase it. Second, create an enabling environment to support behaviour change. Fast, decisive political leadership is crucial. School closures and quarantine measures are powerful tools. But the lesson of HIV is that supporting safer behaviours means addressing structures that constrain or enable people's choices. Just as gender-based violence hindered safer sexual behaviour choices for women, the scarcity of clean water will limit handwashing. In the short term, pragmatic responses such as rapid mass distribution of soap, sanitiser, and personal protective equipment for SARS-CoV-2 will be needed (just as female condom distribution was for HIV control). Modern approaches to HIV prevention are driven by a social-ecological framework.8 Meaningful involvement of communities can shape social norms. Building social capital, trust, and community cohesion catalyses the impact of health messages, and can be fostered by supporting local leadership.9 These dynamics accelerated control of HIV among gay men in the USA, sex workers in India and Thailand, and other communities. The design of the COVID-19 response will need to include older people, those with comorbidities, and those already living at the margin. Unintended social consequences must be avoided. Laws that contribute to blaming in society lead to prejudice, which hampered efforts to control HIV. If people infected with SARS-CoV-2 become stigmatised, others could be less likely to self-quarantine. Similarly, the unfolding global economic upheaval will have resounding impacts on LMICs that might exacerbate the conditions that spread SARS-CoV-2, for example leading to social upheaval. We must be attentive to these dynamics from the start. Third, a multidisciplinary effort is essential. Epidemiological models can predict the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. But a multidisciplinary effort is essential to design, characterise, and evaluate interventions that can shape behaviour. Innovative elements of the HIV response include structured community mobilisation, targeted social protection, and differentiated health-care delivery.10 Implementation science approaches have allowed timely study of novel health care and social delivery models. LMICs must gain access to protective and sanitation equipment before their epidemics grow. Testing programmes must start urgently
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