the politics of covid 19 vaccine confidence CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: The politics of Covid-19 Vaccine Confidence
Abstract: In the context of emerging COVID-19 virus variants trends of vaccine nationalism and multiple vaccine supply challenges COVID-19 vaccine related uncertainties and challenges continue. Additionally confidence in new COVID-19 vaccines is highly variable with minority communities generally less trusting of not only the new vaccines but also those who produce them and the governments buying and recommending them. How governments handle the COVID-19 response will be a key influencer of public confidence in and acceptance of COVID vaccination.
Published: 2021-06-16
Journal: Curr Opin Immunol
DOI: 10.1016/j.coi.2021.06.007
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2021.06.007
Author Name: Sabahelzain Majdi M
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/sabahelzain_majdi_m
Author Name: Hartigan Go Kenneth
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hartigan_go_kenneth
Author Name: Larson Heidi
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/larson_heidi
sha: 6cc60085c8f10db59fffa3ed111e3bcd1c8020a1
license: no-cc
license_url: [no creative commons license associated]
source_x: Elsevier; Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.elsevier.com/https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 34237648
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34237648
pmcid: PMC8206618
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206618
url: https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/pii/S0952791521000753 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2021.06.007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34237648/ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0952791521000753?v=s5
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: Sanofi-GSK pre-order NGO [2] hydroxychloroquine Bad left EUA Lasco pit Covid -19 vaccine Covid-19 vaccines Tedros Adhanom TM ... FDA othersto human Covid -19 vaccines Covid Jair Bolsonaro participants No-one Covid-19 Filipinos Vaccine US$ SARS-CoV-2 virus lines [25] PiS India's Hindu-nationalist Narendra Modi people Food low-to-no Gugushvili Brazil's president China's Sinovac Ivermectin J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f highincome Philippines Bolsonaro Covid-19 vaccine UK GDP Covid vaccines IMF
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Now, well into the second year since the World Health Organization declared that the Covid-19 outbreak in China had become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) [1] , the pandemic continues to disrupt the planet with multiple uncertainties. It has been a turbulent journey with new variants emergingsome more dangerous than othersto seemingly unexpected new outbreaks raging, and multiple new vaccines developed, but their delivery uneven. In addition, supply chains carrying not only vaccines, but crucial ingredients, have been interrupted while wealthy nations hoard the lion's share of supply. Covid-19 vaccines have been increasingly looked to as the holy grail to provide the most promising efficient and effective means of putting the pandemic behind us -especially given the lack of effective treatment against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. But politically motivated decision-making around the pandemic response more broadly, and vaccine decisions specifically, have created serious inequities triggering multiple calls for more fairness across the global response. Reflecting on the global inequity in access to the new Covid-19 vaccines, WHO's Director-General, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus warned that the world was verging on "catastrophic moral failure." [2] Alongside the ethical and logistical challenges of getting newly approved Covid-19 vaccines to those who need them most, equitably, there is a volatile landscape of vaccine confidence. [3] Across the various surveys being conducted locally and globally, [4, 5, 6] willingness to get vaccinated by one of the approved Covid vaccines is dynamic, with ups and downs in willingness depending on the state of the pandemic threat and perceived risk, alongside various concerns around safety, and conspiracies propagating through social media. Many of these drivers are not new to vaccine reluctance or refusal. [7] Already two years before the newly available Covid -19 vaccines were approved for emergency use, the WHO had called out vaccine hesitancy as one of the ten top global health threats [8] , but there are some unique issues around Covid-19 vaccines. One is that the Covid-19 vaccines were developed far more rapidly than expected and launched under an "Emergency Use Authorization. New vaccines by nature provoke more questions but, in the case of Covid-19 vaccines, the processes used to produce them are also new, having never been used for vaccines before, such as the mRNA platform. This overall sense of being rushed, and risking compromises around vaccine safety and quality, has particularly contributed to vaccine hesitancy. External events beyond vaccine concerns around safety and efficacy also matter when it comes to both vaccine hesitancy and low confidence in general, as well as specific to Covid-19 vaccines. Personal and community histories, including memories of exclusion or unfair clinical or scientific practices as well as current marginalization, can undermine public trust and drive vaccine reluctance and refusal. This paper will focus on three key external issues influencing Covid -19 vaccine confidence at a more political level: 1) how governments handle the Covid -19 response more broadly, 2) populism, and 3) vaccine equity, particularly when it plays out as vaccine nationalism. How governments handle the Covid -19 response more broadly is a key influencer of public confidence in vaccination. Research conducted in December 2020 by the Vaccine Confidence Project in collaboration with its polling partner, ORB International, found that across 32 countries the strongest indicator of willingness to accept a Covid -19 vaccine was confidence in the government's handling of the Covid -19 response. [9] If the government was perceived to be handling the pandemic response well, willingness to accept Covid vaccination was higher; for those who felt that their government was handling the response badly, their willingness to vaccinate was much lower. In the case of the Philippines, for example, politicians' misuse of the Covid-19 response to strengthen their political profiles is one factor that has contributed to the erosion of trust in vaccines and vaccination. [10] The national government appeared to hold itself to a different standard than that for other Filipinos when it justified the use of a donated vaccine, which had not undergone regulatory evaluation and approval, for a select group of government officials and employees at a time when the government was unable to procure vaccines for the populace. It later admitted that vaccine deals had stalled because it had only been lately informed of the need for an indemnification law which required an indemnity fund. [11] In another instance, during the first quarter of 2021 when Covid vaccines started to enter the Philippines, the government was criticized as slow in rollout with insufficient vaccination targets being achieved, coupled with rising cases of Covid to levels of 10,000 plus per day. Politicians
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: Filipinos 's Covid-19 vaccine Lasco " [19] Social scientist Gideon Sanofi " [33 " Gugushvili US$ Covid -19 vaccine " [17 pre-purchased UK IMF ... PiS Brazil's " [16] as:•• Populism GDP participants Covid-19 vaccines Bad right populist Jair Bolsonaro Covid-19" hydroxychloroquine FDA Jair Bolsonaro people" left Covid-19 pre-order Widodo Bolsonaro 's Hindu-nationalist EUA No-one Covid -19 response [9 NGO low-to-no Covid people Ivermectin human Philippines Food TM " [34] pit Vaccine Covid -19 vaccines Covid vaccines
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:How governments handle the Covid -19 response more broadly is a key influencer of public confidence in vaccination. Research conducted in December 2020 by the Vaccine Confidence Project in collaboration with its polling partner, ORB International, found that across 32 countries the strongest indicator of willingness to accept a Covid -19 vaccine was confidence in the government's handling of the Covid -19 response [9]. If the government was perceived to be handling the pandemic response well, willingness to accept Covid vaccination was higher; for those who felt that their government was handling the response badly, their willingness to vaccinate was much lower. In the case of the Philippines, for example, politicians' misuse of the Covid-19 response to strengthen their political profiles is one factor that has contributed to the erosion of trust in vaccines and vaccination [10]. The national government appeared to hold itself to a different standard than that for other Filipinos when it justified the use of a donated vaccine, which had not undergone regulatory evaluation and approval, for a select group of government officials and employees at a time when the government was unable to procure vaccines for the populace. It later admitted that vaccine deals had stalled because it had only been lately informed of the need for an indemnification law which required an indemnity fund [11]. In another instance, during the first quarter of 2021 when Covid vaccines started to enter the Philippines, the government was criticized as slow in rollout with insufficient vaccination targets being achieved, coupled with rising cases of Covid to levels of 10,000 plus per day. Politicians promoted and even distributed Ivermectin as a prophylaxis and treatment citing the urgency of public health crisis while going against scientific and legal restrictions [12]. The national government showed it was willing to make compromises in other cases. The Food and Drug Authority (FDA) Philippines granted the first Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to the Chinese vaccine Sinovac with stipulations that it not be used for health frontliners, the elderly and those with comorbidities, effectively the top three categories of government prioritization. A public uproar ensued, and the FDA overturned its stipulations a few days later without explanation; by then, even those who wanted to be vaccinated had resolved to wait for a "better" vaccine [13]. As all this trial and error unfolded on traditional and social media, along with disagreements among public figures and experts, self-proclaimed and otherwise, confusion and vaccine hesitancy continue to grow. Tensions between experts, authorities, and the public are not new to vaccines, and particularly play out in the context of populism. In 2019, an analysis which compared the Vaccine Confidence IndexTM measures across the European Union member countries to voting behaviour, found that the proportion of people who voted for populist parties correlated significantly with low-to-no confidence in the importance, effectiveness, or safety of vaccines [14]. Earlier studies have also reported the influence of political affiliation on vaccine sentiments [15••]. Populism is described by Gugushvili et al. as "pitting the 'common sense' of a virtuous people against expert knowledge. Its arguments often oppose public health measures that are based on evidence from research." [16]. As outlined in Larson's book Stuck "From Italy's Five Star party to Poland's Law and Justice party (PiS), Trump, Brazil's far right populist Jair Bolsonaro, Turkish President Recep Erdogan, Joko Widodo in Indonesia, and India's Hindu-nationalist Narendra Modi, us-versus-them intolerance is back on the rise. It is "the people" versus the political and financial elites, with medical and scientific experts seen as among those who are deemed elitist, speaking a different, inaccessible language and entwined with big business and pharma as well as politics." [17] Mckee et al describe four common potential mechanisms that are used by populist leaders in handling the Covid -19 pandemic, including blaming outsiders and victims, contempt for institutions, denialism and suspicion of elites [18]. In another analysis of what author, Brett Meyer, terms "pandemic populism," he differentiates between types of populist leaders. "Not all populists who have taken the virus seriously have responded the same way. Some have taken an illiberal response, assuming excessive emergency powers and/or using the crisis to crack down on political opponents." Meyer identifies others, such as Modi, as being "cultural populists". "For these (cultural populist) leaders, the crisis has offered an opportunity to draw cultural dividing lines with opponents to strengthen their own positions." [19] Social scientist Gideon Lasco, who coined the term "medical populism" and also explored its relevance to immunisation programmes [20,21••], took his analyses further in the co
PDF JSON Files: document_parses/pdf_json/6cc60085c8f10db59fffa3ed111e3bcd1c8020a1.json
PMC JSON Files: document_parses/pmc_json/PMC8206618.xml.json
G_ID: the_politics_of_covid_19_vaccine_confidence