the occurrence of porcine circovirus 3 without clinical infection signs in shandong CORD-Papers-2021-10-25 (Version 1)

Title: The occurrence of porcine circovirus 3 without clinical infection signs in Shandong Province
Abstract: Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was detected in Shandong, China. One hundred and thirtytwo of 222 (59.46%) samples were PCV3 positive, while 52 of 132 (39.39%) samples were coinfected with PCV2. There were no clinical signs of infection in either multiparous sows or liveborn infants. Two strains of PCV3 were indentified from natural stillborn foetuses. Phylogenetic analysis showed the two strains of PCV3 are 96% identical to the known PCV3/Pig/USA (KX778720.1, KX966193.1 and KX898030.1) and closely related to Barbel Circovirus. Further studies of the epidemiology of PCV3 and the coinfection with PCV2 are needed.
Published: 6/26/2017
Journal: Transbound Emerg Dis
DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12667
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12667
Author Name: Zheng, S
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/zheng_s
Author Name: Wu, X
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wu_x
Author Name: Zhang, L
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/zhang_l
Author Name: Xin, C
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/xin_c
Author Name: Liu, Y
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/liu_y
Author Name: Shi, J
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/shi_j
Author Name: Peng, Z
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/peng_z
Author Name: Xu, S
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/xu_s
Author Name: Fu, F
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/fu_f
Author Name: Yu, J
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/yu_j
Author Name: Sun, W
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/sun_w
Author Name: Xu, S
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/xu_s
Author Name: Li, J
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/li_j
Author Name: Wang, J
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wang_j
sha: b1c01ca4471447ea41f07e691ef2fee4cc3d5a02
license: no-cc
license_url: [no creative commons license associated]
source_x: Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 28653486
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28653486
pmcid: PMC7169790
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169790
url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28653486/ https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12667
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: infants Barbel Circovirus KX966193.1 PCV2 PCV3 Porcine circovirus type 3 Shandong, China PCV3/Pig/USA multiparous sows DNA pig replicase stillborn foetuses kidneys Porcine circovirus Grau-Roma lymph nodes PCV1 Oc8 Segales com- Buhk, 1998 enteritis sows spleen tissues PCV2 porcine dermatitis PCV3 France mammalian cells Dory ORF1 PCV2-PCV3 PCV3/CN/Shandong-1/2017 pork PCV2 genome ORF2 Faurez Cap cardiac GenBank Wolf NQT swine KY778777 PCV3/CN/Shandong-2/2017 pigs Grasland cell culture-derived virus PMWS Jestin papules 256-258aa pig farms Rep feral swine hosts capsid skin inguinal superficial renal pelvis NPS KY778776 cutaneous scars porcine 286-288aa (NAT) (Mankertz, Mankertz
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was detected in Shandong, China. One hundred and thirty-two of 222 (59.46%) samples were PCV3 positive, while 52 of 132 (39.39%) samples were co-infected with PCV2. There were no clinical signs of infection in either multiparous sows or live-born infants. Two strains of PCV3 were indentified from natural stillborn foetuses. Phylogenetic analysis showed the two strains of PCV3 are 96% identical to the known PCV3/Pig/USA (KX778720.1, KX966193.1 and KX898030.1) and closely related to Barbel Circovirus. Further studies of the epidemiology of PCV3 and the co-infection with PCV2 are needed. Porcine circovirus (PCV) is the first and smallest animal virus shown to possess a circular, single-stranded DNA genome that replicates autonomously in mammalian cells (Tischer, Gelderblom, & Vettermann, 1982) . PCV1 and PCV2 are the two basic genotypes of PCV. PCV1 is a cell culture-derived virus and is considered nonpathogenic for swine. PCV2 is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVAD) in swine; PCVAD has been referred to by different names, the most common being postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Furthermore, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia, respiratory disease and enteritis were also linked to PCV2 infections (Allan et al., 2000; Madson et al., 2009; Grau-Roma & Segal es, 2007; Cheng et al., 2011; Kim & Chae, 2004) and have caused a huge economic loss to the pig industry worldwide. PCV3, a novel genotype of PCV, was first reported in pigs with cardiac and multisystemic inflammation in 2016 (Phan et al., 2016) . About the same time, pigs were detected having PCV3 with PDNS, and reproductive failure was reported (Palinski et al., 2016) . The PCV2 genome is composed of 1,767-1,768 nucleotides and predicted to possess eleven open reading frames (ORFs). The intergenic region (IR) contains the origin of replication with a stem-loop (SL) structure, which includes an octanucleotide sequence (Oc8) flanked by palindromes (Faurez, Dory, Grasland, & Jestin, 2009) . Two major ORFs, ORF1 and ORF2, encode replicase (Rep) and capsid protein (Cap), respectively. Cap contains one putative N-glycosylation site at position 143-145aa (NYS) (Nawagitgul et al., 2002) , while Rep contains three potential glycosylation sites at positions 23-25aa (NPS), 256-258aa (NQT) and 286-288aa (NAT) (Mankertz, Mankertz, Wolf, & Buhk, 1998) . Regarding clinical aspects, PCV2 is ubiquitous, having both domestic and feral swine hosts; most pigs become infected at 4-11 weeks of age. The common presenting clinical signs of PMWS include wasting or unthriftiness, dyspnoea and visibly enlarged lymph nodes (Segales, Allan, & Domingo, 2005) . Characteristic PDNS symptoms are irregular, red-to-purple macules and papules in the skin; subcutaneous haemorrhages and oedema of affected areas; enlarged lymph nodes, mainly inguinal superficial; cutaneous scars in animals that have recovered from the acute phase; bilaterally enlarged kidneys; small cortical petechiae and oedema of the renal pelvis; and occasional spleen infarcts (Segal es, 2012). With the world's highest pork consumption (accounting for almost 50%), China plays an important role in global pig production. In particular, Shandong is an agriculturally advanced province of China, with a great variety of large-scale pig farms. The viral metagenomic deep sequencing was performed by MiSeq Reagent Kit V2 (Illumina). The complete genomes of two isolates were sequenced and com- The genetic analysis was performed using BLASTN and BLASTP (NCBI). Interestingly, most of the tissues tested negative for PCV2. The All PCV3-infected pigs in this study were naturally stillborn foetuses. According to previous reports, PCV3 is associated with PDNS, reproductive failure, cardiac and multisystemic inflammation. Interestingly, there is no clinical infection sign of either PCV3-associated disease or PMWS shown in sows and live-born in this study. The chronicles of each pig farms were queried to determine the previously mentioned outcome. One of the seven large-scale pig farms (Yantai) was found to have had introduced breeds from France, and the sows were injected with the vaccine from Boehringer Ingelheim. However, to the best of our knowledge, PCV3 has not yet been reported to date in France or Europe. Further study should focus on the epidemiology of PCV3 and the co-infection of PCV2-PCV3. The GenBank accession numbers of PCV3/CN/Shandong-1/2017 and PCV3/CN/Shandong-2/2017 are KY778776 and KY778777. We gratefully acknowledge Douglas M. Eubanks for English language editing. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The data set supporting the conclusions of this article is available in the GenBank. The study was partly supported by National Key R&D Program (
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: hearts swine replicase Faurez lymph nodes Weihai, TTV2 CSFV capsid pig porcine PCV2 pork Laiwu Buhk, 1998 large‐scale PCV1 NPS inguinal superficial PCV3/CN/Shandong‐1/2017 pigs tissue homogenate KY778776 enteritis Segales Porcine circovirus renal pelvis spleen GenBank Circoviridae Wolf pig farms lungs porcine dermatitis cutaneous scars ORF1 PMWS PCV2 genome PRRSV Grasland sows Rep skin NQT Shandong Province TTV1 mammalian cells PCV3/CN/Shandong‐2/2017 Jestin papules spleens ORF2 Cap Dory PCV3 DNA KY778777 Grau‐Roma livers cardiac kidneys umbilical cords Liaocheng twenty‐two tissue samples live‐born infants Oc8 porcine viruses feral swine hosts cell culture‐derived virus
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Porcine circovirus (PCV) is the first and smallest animal virus shown to possess a circular, single‐stranded DNA genome that replicates autonomously in mammalian cells (Tischer, Gelderblom, & Vettermann, 1982). PCV1 and PCV2 are the two basic genotypes of PCV. PCV1 is a cell culture‐derived virus and is considered non‐pathogenic for swine. PCV2 is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus‐associated diseases (PCVAD) in swine; PCVAD has been referred to by different names, the most common being postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Furthermore, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), proliferative and necrotizing pneumonia, respiratory disease and enteritis were also linked to PCV2 infections (Allan et al., 2000; Madson et al., 2009; Grau‐Roma & Segalés, 2007; Cheng et al., 2011; Kim & Chae, 2004) and have caused a huge economic loss to the pig industry worldwide. PCV3, a novel genotype of PCV, was first reported in pigs with cardiac and multisystemic inflammation in 2016 (Phan et al., 2016). About the same time, pigs were detected having PCV3 with PDNS, and reproductive failure was reported (Palinski et al., 2016). The PCV2 genome is composed of 1,767–1,768 nucleotides and predicted to possess eleven open reading frames (ORFs). The intergenic region (IR) contains the origin of replication with a stem‐loop (SL) structure, which includes an octanucleotide sequence (Oc8) flanked by palindromes (Faurez, Dory, Grasland, & Jestin, 2009). Two major ORFs, ORF1 and ORF2, encode replicase (Rep) and capsid protein (Cap), respectively. Cap contains one putative N‐glycosylation site at position 143–145aa (NYS) (Nawagitgul et al., 2002), while Rep contains three potential glycosylation sites at positions 23–25aa (NPS), 256–258aa (NQT) and 286–288aa (NAT) (Mankertz, Mankertz, Wolf, & Buhk, 1998). Regarding clinical aspects, PCV2 is ubiquitous, having both domestic and feral swine hosts; most pigs become infected at 4–11 weeks of age. The common presenting clinical signs of PMWS include wasting or unthriftiness, dyspnoea and visibly enlarged lymph nodes (Segales, Allan, & Domingo, 2005). Characteristic PDNS symptoms are irregular, red‐to‐purple macules and papules in the skin; subcutaneous haemorrhages and oedema of affected areas; enlarged lymph nodes, mainly inguinal superficial; cutaneous scars in animals that have recovered from the acute phase; bilaterally enlarged kidneys; small cortical petechiae and oedema of the renal pelvis; and occasional spleen infarcts (Segalés, 2012). With the world's highest pork consumption (accounting for almost 50%), China plays an important role in global pig production. In particular, Shandong is an agriculturally advanced province of China, with a great variety of large‐scale pig farms. Two hundred and twenty‐two tissue samples (including hearts, livers, lungs, kidneys, spleens and umbilical cords) were collected from 37 natural stillborn foetuses from seven main, large pig farms (Weihai, Yantai, Linyi, Binzhou, Weifang, Laiwu and Liaocheng) in Shandong Province (Figure 1). No clinical infection signs appeared in either sows or live‐born infants. The tissue homogenate was prepared for the regular detection of common porcine viruses (PCV1, PCV2, PPV, PRV, TTV1, TTV2, PRRSV and CSFV) using PCR. The viral metagenomic deep sequencing was performed by MiSeq Reagent Kit V2 (Illumina). The complete genomes of two isolates were sequenced and compared with 22 complete sequences of the Circoviridae family isolates from twelve different countries. The Cap genome of the two isolates were sequenced and compared with fifteen Cap sequences of the Circoviridae family from eight different countries, and the Rep genome of the two isolates were sequenced and compared with seventeen Rep sequences of the Circoviridae family from twelve different countries. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using MEGA 6.0. The genetic analysis was performed using BLASTN and BLASTP (NCBI). The GenBank accession numbers of PCV3/CN/Shandong‐1/2017 and PCV3/CN/Shandong‐2/2017 are KY778776 and KY778777. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The data set supporting the conclusions of this article is available in the GenBank.
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