priorities in reducing child mortality azithromycin and other interventions CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Priorities in reducing child mortality: Azithromycin and other interventions
Abstract: In this Perspective David Mabey and colleagues discuss a recent PLOS Medicine article on azithromycin as an intervention for reducing child mortality.
Published: 2020-09-15
Journal: PLoS Med
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003364
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003364
Author Name: Mabey David
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mabey_david
Author Name: Okomo Uduak
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/okomo_uduak
Author Name: Greenwood Brian
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/greenwood_brian
sha: 53cc2741ac71a03c56fa839fd2b1c3f48098e91e
license: cc-by
license_url: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
source_x: PMC
source_x_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pmcid: PMC7491718
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491718
url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491718/
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: long-acting eye GBS measles B streptococcus children Azithromycin Niger S. pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae type b azithromycin Streptococcus pneumoniae artemisinin Oral macrolides azithromycin preterm women nasopharyngeal carriage uterotonics S. pneumoniae alcohol kangaroo mother mothers water GBS anticonvulsants oral azithromycin mother benzathine penicillin children S. aureus membranes conditions-complications parenteral antenatal corticosteroids
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the global under-5 mortality rate decreased by 59% between 1990 and 2018, from 93 to 39 deaths per 1,000 live births [1] . This remarkable reduction was achieved largely by increasing the coverage of vaccination against measles and other childhood infections, rolling out new vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, and introducing artemisinin combination treatment and long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets for the treatment and prevention of malaria. In 2018, a randomised trial conducted in Niger, Tanzania, and Malawi-the Macrolides Oraux pour Réduire les Décès avec un Oeil sur la Résistance (MORDOR; "Oral macrolides to reduce death with an eye on resistance") study-showed that twice yearly, community-based mass treatment with a single dose of azithromycin reduced all-cause under-5 mortality by 13.5% (95% CI 6.7-19.8) [2] . In children aged between 1 and 6 months, mortality was 24.9% lower in those who received azithromycin. Azithromycin is a long-acting, broad spectrum antibiotic that also has antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and possibly antiviral properties [3, 4] . At the study site in Niger, where the impact of azithromycin on mortality was greatest, verbal autopsy revealed fewer deaths from malaria, dysentery, meningitis, and pneumonia in communities treated with azithromycin, the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was reduced, and the gut pathogen load was reduced after the fourth biannual azithromycin distribution [5] [6] [7] . Given that severe malnutrition increases the risk of life-threatening infectious diseases and is an important contributor to under-5 mortality, it seemed likely that the impact of azithromycin on mortality would be enhanced in malnourished children. The paper by Kieran O'Brien and colleagues in this issue of PLOS Medicine investigates the question, comparing the impact of azithromycin mass treatment in malnourished (underweight) versus well-nourished children at the Niger study site of MORDOR [8] . The reduction in mortality in the azithromycin arm of the study (12.6 fewer deaths, 95% CI 6.9-18.5, per 1,000 person-years overall) was greater in malnourished than in well-nourished children, but not significantly so. The authors conclude that azithromycin mass treatment given to all children will have a greater impact on mortality than targeting treatment to malnourished children. While this is not unexpected, the potential impact of treating 10 times as many children on the antimicrobial susceptibility of important bacterial pathogens is an important consideration. Bacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality among newborns [9] with Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae, and group B streptococcus (GBS) among the major pathogens [10] . Although the MORDOR trial excluded newborns, a recent study showed that PLOS Medicine | https://doi. administration of oral azithromycin during labour significantly reduced maternal and neonatal nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and GBS as well as maternal and neonatal infections, with a short-term increase in the prevalence of azithromycin-resistant S. aureus among newborns of mothers who had received azithromycin [11, 12] . A major target of the sustainable development goals is to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030, with all countries reducing under-5 mortality to less than 25 per 1,000 live births. While 120 WHO member states already meet this target, achieving it in all countries will be challenging. Whether and in what circumstances azithromycin mass treatment should be recommended remains debatable, and further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms by which the drug reduces mortality and the settings in which its impact is likely to be greatest while also evaluating the impact of this intervention on antimicrobial resistance. What other interventions could help to achieve this target? Neonatal mortality has declined very little in the past 30 years, and almost 50% of childhood deaths are now in neonates, making interventions to reduce neonatal mortality and prevent stillbirths a high priority. More than 80% of all newborn deaths result from 3 preventable and treatable conditions-complications due to prematurity, intrapartum-related deaths (including birth asphyxia), and neonatal infections; a third of these deaths occur on the day of birth and nearly three-quarters in the first week of life. In 2014, WHO and UNICEF launched the Every Newborn Action Plan, which was endorsed by all 194 member states and which focuses on improving the quality of care around the time of birth [13] . It set out a clear vision of how to improve newborn health and prevent stillbirths. The target for 2035 is for all countries to reach the target of 10 or fewer newborn deaths and fewer than 10 stillbirths per 1,000 live births. How can this ambitious target be achieved? Focusing on the c
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: GBS artemisinin parenteral Azithromycin mothers Malawi— S. aureus Haemophilus influenzae type b membranes " S. pneumoniae measles Streptococcus pneumoniae azithromycin women nasopharyngeal alcohol UNICEF oral azithromycin uterotonics B streptococcus antenatal corticosteroids eye anticonvulsants water mother benzathine penicillin children long-acting Oral macrolides preterm Niger kangaroo mother
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the global under-5 mortality rate decreased by 59% between 1990 and 2018, from 93 to 39 deaths per 1,000 live births [1]. This remarkable reduction was achieved largely by increasing the coverage of vaccination against measles and other childhood infections, rolling out new vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, and introducing artemisinin combination treatment and long-lasting, insecticide-treated bed nets for the treatment and prevention of malaria. In 2018, a randomised trial conducted in Niger, Tanzania, and Malawi—the Macrolides Oraux pour Réduire les Décès avec un Oeil sur la Résistance (MORDOR; "Oral macrolides to reduce death with an eye on resistance") study—showed that twice yearly, community-based mass treatment with a single dose of azithromycin reduced all-cause under-5 mortality by 13.5% (95% CI 6.7–19.8) [2]. In children aged between 1 and 6 months, mortality was 24.9% lower in those who received azithromycin. Azithromycin is a long-acting, broad spectrum antibiotic that also has antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and possibly antiviral properties [3,4]. At the study site in Niger, where the impact of azithromycin on mortality was greatest, verbal autopsy revealed fewer deaths from malaria, dysentery, meningitis, and pneumonia in communities treated with azithromycin, the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was reduced, and the gut pathogen load was reduced after the fourth biannual azithromycin distribution [5–7]. Given that severe malnutrition increases the risk of life-threatening infectious diseases and is an important contributor to under-5 mortality, it seemed likely that the impact of azithromycin on mortality would be enhanced in malnourished children. The paper by Kieran O'Brien and colleagues in this issue of PLOS Medicine investigates the question, comparing the impact of azithromycin mass treatment in malnourished (underweight) versus well-nourished children at the Niger study site of MORDOR [8]. The reduction in mortality in the azithromycin arm of the study (12.6 fewer deaths, 95% CI 6.9–18.5, per 1,000 person-years overall) was greater in malnourished than in well-nourished children, but not significantly so. The authors conclude that azithromycin mass treatment given to all children will have a greater impact on mortality than targeting treatment to malnourished children. While this is not unexpected, the potential impact of treating 10 times as many children on the antimicrobial susceptibility of important bacterial pathogens is an important consideration. Bacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality among newborns [9] with Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae, and group B streptococcus (GBS) among the major pathogens [10]. Although the MORDOR trial excluded newborns, a recent study showed that administration of oral azithromycin during labour significantly reduced maternal and neonatal nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and GBS as well as maternal and neonatal infections, with a short-term increase in the prevalence of azithromycin-resistant S. aureus among newborns of mothers who had received azithromycin [11,12]. A major target of the sustainable development goals is to end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030, with all countries reducing under-5 mortality to less than 25 per 1,000 live births. While 120 WHO member states already meet this target, achieving it in all countries will be challenging. Whether and in what circumstances azithromycin mass treatment should be recommended remains debatable, and further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms by which the drug reduces mortality and the settings in which its impact is likely to be greatest while also evaluating the impact of this intervention on antimicrobial resistance. What other interventions could help to achieve this target? Neonatal mortality has declined very little in the past 30 years, and almost 50% of childhood deaths are now in neonates, making interventions to reduce neonatal mortality and prevent stillbirths a high priority. More than 80% of all newborn deaths result from 3 preventable and treatable conditions—complications due to prematurity, intrapartum-related deaths (including birth asphyxia), and neonatal infections; a third of these deaths occur on the day of birth and nearly three-quarters in the first week of life. In 2014, WHO and UNICEF launched the Every Newborn Action Plan, which was endorsed by all 194 member states and which focuses on improving the quality of care around the time of birth [13]. It set out a clear vision of how to improve newborn health and prevent stillbirths. The target for 2035 is for all countries to reach the target of 10 or fewer newborn deaths and fewer than 10 stillbirths per 1,000 live births. How can this ambitious target be achieved? Focusing on the critical periods before and immediately follow
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