physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children and adolescents with intellectual CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities during the COVID19 lockdown in China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the wake of the COVID19 pandemic preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB among schoolaged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland during the COVID19 outbreak. METHODS: In total 837 parents of children and adolescents (ages 618 years) with ID from 15 special education schools of Shandong Province in China were recruited through convenience sampling in the study. Parents reported PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID through the Children's Leisure Activities Study SurveyChinese version (CLASSC) online questionnaires. RESULTS: From parents' reports Chinese children and adolescents with ID during the COVID19 pandemic participated in approximately 10 min of moderatetovigorous physical activity and engaged in approximately 530 min of SB every day. Meanwhile only 17.4% of children and adolescents with ID were able to achieve the recommendation of 60 min of daily moderatetovigorous physical activity and 76.1% of children and adolescents with ID spent more than 2 h on SB per day. Additionally the problems of decrease PA and excessive SB were more prominent in older adolescents with ID compared with younger children with ID. CONCLUSION: In China the low level of PA and high level of SB is particularly evident in children and adolescents with ID during the outbreak of COVID19. The great majority of children and adolescents with ID did not meet the recommended amount of PA while undergoing excessive SB under the longterm home quarantine environment. Therefore immediate attention and great effort should be made to deal with this severe situation among this vulnerable population in the mainland of China.
Published: 2021-11-03
Journal: J Intellect Disabil Res
DOI: 10.1111/jir.12898
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12898
Author Name: Yuan Y Q
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/yuan_y_q
Author Name: Ding J N
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/ding_j_n
Author Name: Bi N
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/bi_n
Author Name: Wang M J
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wang_m_j
Author Name: Zhou S C
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/zhou_s_c
Author Name: Wang X L
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wang_x_l
Author Name: Zhang S H
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/zhang_s_h
Author Name: Liu Y
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/liu_y
Author Name: Roswal G
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/roswal_g
sha: 66e7b35c30caf08a8bd71900c03f213c492a5086
license: no-cc
license_url: [no creative commons license associated]
source_x: Medline; PMC; WHO
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/https://www.who.int/
pubmed_id: 34730262
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34730262
pmcid: PMC8657159
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8657159
url: https://doi.org/10.1111/jir.12898 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34730262/
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: COVID-19 adolescents SB PA children Barr 1.626 http://www.wjx.cn 1.505 ID Vanderloo COVID-19 lockdown type II diabetes) lockdown persons Shandong Province MPVA warnings/bans heart participants sections Shields 2011 Margaritis PA cerebral palsy children Couzin-Frankel Wechat laptops students-students Survey-Chinese adolescents WeChat shelter-at-home line Shandong Provincial Disabled Persons' Federation teacher-students Children's Leisure Activities Study Cronbach's α PE 3-6 VPA ageing)/disease Shandong Social Science Planning Project (No. 18CQXJ47 COVID-19 people 55-70 cancers People's Republic CLASS-C MET Schleien (2004) SB cardiovascular PA children Shandong Province
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Background In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB Background In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB among school-aged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods In total, 837 parents of children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) with ID from 15 special education schools of Shandong Province in China were recruited through convenience sampling in the study. Parents reported PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID through the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey-Chinese version (CLASS-C) online questionnaires. Results From parents' reports, Chinese children and adolescents with ID during the COVID-19 pandemic participated in approximately 10 min of moderateto-vigorous physical activity, and engaged in approximately 530 min of SB every day. Meanwhile, only 17.4% of children and adolescents with ID were able to achieve the recommendation of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 76.1% of children and adolescents with ID spent more than 2 h on SB per day. Additionally, the problems of decrease PA and excessive SB were more prominent in older adolescents with ID compared with younger children with ID. Conclusion In China, the low level of PA and high level of SB is particularly evident in children and adolescents with ID during the outbreak of COVID-19. The great majority of children and adolescents with ID did not meet the recommended amount of PA while undergoing excessive SB under the long-term home quarantine environment. Therefore, immediate attention and great effort should be made to deal with this severe situation among this vulnerable population in the mainland of China. In March 2020, COVID-19 was declared a global public health crisis by the World Health Organization (WHO) (WHO 2020a). By February 2021, the pandemic had reached 192 countries and territories, infecting over 99 million people worldwide with more than 2.1 million deaths (John Hopkins University 2020). Governments enacted a number of restrictions, such as putting cities on lockdown, implementing travel warnings/bans and cancellations, calling off large public gatherings and events, and cancelling schools in an effort to restrict the spread of the COVID-19 (Chen et al. 2020) . Under the impact of the COVID-19, the daily lives of children and adolescences have been changed . Approximately 1.5 billion children and adolescents worldwide participated in online courses attributed to school closures (Couzin-Frankel et al. 2020) . The school closures, along with other additional socio-behavioural adaptations (e.g. quarantining, social distancing and telecommunicating), are impacting the lifestyle activities of children and adolescences (Bates et al. 2020) . Preliminary evidence shows that social restrictions required to reduce COVID-19 transmission have decreased engagement in physical activity (PA) (Guerrero et al. 2020; Moore et al. 2020; Zenic et al. 2020 ) and increased sedentary behaviour (SB) among children and adolescents (Margaritis et al. 2020; Vanderloo et al. 2020) . The PA and SB are of particular significance in promoting children and adolescent health. Numerous studies have shown that PA and SB are considered separate and independent risk factors for health among children and adolescents Carson et al. 2016; Shen et al. 2020) . It is necessary to note that even those who comply with recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may not be shielded from the health detriments of participating in prolonged SB (Salmon et al. 2011; Mitchell and Byun 2014) . An insufficient MVPA, in conjunction with a high level of SB may expose children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) to health threats (e.g. heart disease, diabetes and other chronic diseases) , and in turn, such worsened health conditions would further decrease PA levels and prolong SB. In addition, inadequate PA and excessive SB among children and adolescences could result in an increased risk of health consequences (e.g. overweight/obesity and type II diabetes) (Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee 2008). Moreover, these unhealthy behaviour patterns in childhood and adolescence are likely to conti
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: MPVA 1.505 Schleien (2004) COVID‐19 Cronbach's α heart WeChat lockdown cerebral palsy long‐term http://www.wjx.cn Shandong Provincial Disabled Persons' Federation follow‐up cross‐sectional teacher Barr Margaritis People's Republic people Shandong Province 50–60 MET Whitt‐Glover ageing)/disease cancers Shields 2011 Shandong Social Science Planning Project (No. 18CQXJ47 children PA children life‐cycle PA SB PE cardiovascular Wechat warnings/bans persons VPA type II diabetes) Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey‐Chinese‐version CLASS‐C ID participants Vanderloo Follow‐up 40–54 adolescents laptops 1.626 3–6 line COVID‐19 lockdown
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:In March 2020, COVID‐19 was declared a global public health crisis by the World Health Organization (WHO) (WHO 2020a). By February 2021, the pandemic had reached 192 countries and territories, infecting over 99 million people worldwide with more than 2.1 million deaths (John Hopkins University 2020). Governments enacted a number of restrictions, such as putting cities on lockdown, implementing travel warnings/bans and cancellations, calling off large public gatherings and events, and cancelling schools in an effort to restrict the spread of the COVID‐19 (Chen et al. 2020). Under the impact of the COVID‐19, the daily lives of children and adolescences have been changed (Moore et al. 2020). Approximately 1.5 billion children and adolescents worldwide participated in online courses attributed to school closures (Couzin‐Frankel et al. 2020). The school closures, along with other additional socio‐behavioural adaptations (e.g. quarantining, social distancing and telecommunicating), are impacting the lifestyle activities of children and adolescences (Bates et al. 2020). Preliminary evidence shows that social restrictions required to reduce COVID‐19 transmission have decreased engagement in physical activity (PA) (Guerrero et al. 2020; Moore et al. 2020; Zenic et al. 2020) and increased sedentary behaviour (SB) among children and adolescents (Margaritis et al. 2020; Vanderloo et al. 2020). The PA and SB are of particular significance in promoting children and adolescent health. Numerous studies have shown that PA and SB are considered separate and independent risk factors for health among children and adolescents (Tremblay et al. 2011; Carson et al. 2016; Shen et al. 2020). It is necessary to note that even those who comply with recommendations for moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may not be shielded from the health detriments of participating in prolonged SB (Salmon et al. 2011; Mitchell and Byun 2014). An insufficient MVPA, in conjunction with a high level of SB may expose children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) to health threats (e.g. heart disease, diabetes and other chronic diseases) (Liu et al. 2020), and in turn, such worsened health conditions would further decrease PA levels and prolong SB. In addition, inadequate PA and excessive SB among children and adolescences could result in an increased risk of health consequences (e.g. overweight/obesity and type II diabetes) (Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee 2008). Moreover, these unhealthy behaviour patterns in childhood and adolescence are likely to continue into adulthood (Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee 2008). The WHO released the WHO 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour in November 2020 in an attempt to promote physical and mental health benefits for children and adolescents. WHO suggests that children and adolescences between 5 and 17 years meet the recommendation of at least 60 minutes of MVPA while limiting SB to under 2 h every day (WHO 2020b). Furthermore, children and adolescents can obtain additional health‐related benefits from concurrently increasing MVPA and limiting SB (Shen et al. 2020). The latest research revealed that Chinese typically developed (TD) children and adolescents' PA levels had decreased and SB had increased since the outbreak of COVID‐19 (Xiang et al. 2020). Data in China indicate that only 29.5% of children and adolescences with ID met the recommended amount of PA before the COVID‐19 pandemic (Liu et al. 2020). Compared with their TD peers, Chinese children and adolescents with ID have insufficient levels of PA and a lower standard‐reaching rate of MVPA (Liu et al. 2020). Considerable evidence has shown that PA has positive effects on the physical and psychosocial health of children and adolescences with ID (Kapsal et al. 2019). Despite the fact that SB research on children and adolescents with ID is in the early stages, studies by Esposito et al. (2012) and Phillips et al. (2011) showed that children and adolescences with ID experience adverse health disparities, which possibly was associated with high levels of SB. It is a concern that such lifestyle activities as PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID may also have been substantially impacted by the nationwide prolonged school closures in China during the COVID‐19 pandemic. All children and adolescents with ID no longer attend school and their classroom lessons are replaced by online learning at home, which reduces opportunities to engage in PA and increases possibility of SB. Under such a situation, PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID are significant concerns. Although we cannot predict when the pandemic will end, we can take effective measures aimed at this vulnerable population by responding proactively to reduce the potential health risks associated with public health emergencies. Thus, a better understanding of the current situation of PA and SB during this pande
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