our postpandemic world what will it take to build a better future for people and CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Our Postpandemic World: What Will It Take to Build a Better Future for People and Planet?
Abstract: POLICY POINTS: Despite the pandemic's ongoing devastating impacts it also offers the opportunity and lessons for building a better fairer and sustainable world. Transformational change will require new ways of working challenging powerful individuals and industries who worsened the crisis will act to exploit it for personal gain and will work to ensure that the future aligns with their interests. A flourishing world needs strong and equitable structures and systems including strengthened democratic research and educational institutions supported by ideas and discourses that are free of opaque and conflicted influence and that challenge the status quo and inequitable distribution of power.
Published: 2021-03-30
Journal: Milbank Q
DOI: 10.1111/1468-0009.12508
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12508
Author Name: VAN SCHALKWYK MAY CI
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/van_schalkwyk_may_ci
Author Name: MAANI NASON
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/maani_nason
Author Name: COHEN JONATHAN
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/cohen_jonathan
Author Name: MCKEE MARTIN
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mckee_martin
Author Name: PETTICREW MARK
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/petticrew_mark
sha: f93616677aca18278bd6839ca1edf70441c2f07c
license: no-cc
license_url: [no creative commons license associated]
source_x: Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 33783865
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33783865
pmcid: PMC8241272
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241272
url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33783865/ https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0009.12508
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: Tobacco people's inalienable right Saltman skeleton bodies school-to-prison pipe-line conflict-of-interest hurricanes solutions-whose Covid-19 Oil Iraq's oil 38(p15 people actions-will 65(p5 ... lung cancer 107(p21 50(p5 COVID-19 countermovements foci P-210 Children wildlife Wall Street's postpandemic cancer gas-led alcohol seed Harshly People's Campaign her leveler heart 55(p21 Upshur Fontdevila Far Cynicism meat people's line petro-pedagogy funds 108(p76 Talisman US Fracosaurus backstop Funding/Support Sandlin children human reasserts [111] [112] [113] Youth-led lockdown directors Organizations tobacco oil extortionate UK beer Producers counterdiscourse lawyers lockdown
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:r Despite the pandemic's ongoing devastating impacts, it also offers the opportunity and lessons for building a better, fairer, and sustainable world. r Transformational change will require new ways of working, challenging powerful individuals and industries who worsened the crisis, will act to exploit it for personal gain, and will work to ensure that the future aligns with their interests. r A flourishing world needs strong and equitable structures and systems, including strengthened democratic, research, and educational institutions, supported by ideas and discourses that are free of opaque and conflicted influence and that challenge the status quo and inequitable distribution of power. A crisis forces us back to the questions themselves and requires from us either new or old answers, but in any case direct judgment. A crisis becomes a disaster only when we respond to it with preformed judgments, that is, with prejudices. Such an attitude not only sharpens the crisis but makes us forfeit the experience of reality and the opportunity for reflection it provides. Hannah Arendt, Between Past and Future 1 T he Covid-19 pandemic has claimed more than one million lives. Continued morbidity and mortality, combined with the social and economic consequences, threaten many more. Far from being a "great leveler," the most deprived have incurred the greatest burden of harm, and the pandemic has exposed existing, but too often overlooked, weaknesses and injustices in our societies. Yet it has also created hope. Global media coverage of the pandemic has been accompanied by a surge of commentary on the opportunities that the events of 2020 offer humanity, contemplating new kinds of societies and ways of governing in the postpandemic era (see the Appendix for additional reading). Organizations representing more than 40 million health professionals worldwide have called upon the G20 leaders to recognize recovery plans as opportunities to "come back stronger, healthier and more resilient." 2 Furthermore, current and former central bankers believe that the "crisis offers us a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to rebuild our economy in order to withstand the next shock coming our way: climate breakdown." They have called for a green recovery agenda centered on the aim to "build back better," 3 and the head of an advocacy group, The Climate Mobilization, said, "We can't think we're going to go 'back to normal,' because things weren't normal." 4 We cannot, and should not, return to our "normal" state of affairs, which bred unacceptable injustices and ecological destruction. Considerable power resides in this wave of hope, and it must be harnessed to capture this moment in the interests of people and the planet. This sense of opportunity has historical resonance. Crises such as earthquakes, hurricanes, economic recessions, epidemics, and wars have previously been catalysts for change and have led to advances in public health, medicine, and political thinking, as well as shifts in geopolitical power. 5-7 Solnit described how "disasters provide an extraordinary window into social desire and possibility, and what manifests there matters elsewhere, in ordinary times and in other extraordinary times." 7(p6) She also noted that "armed with compassion," people mobilize in crises to help strangers, to rebuild communities and that the "positive emotions that arise in those unpromising circumstances demonstrate that social ties and meaningful work are deeply desired, readily improvised, and intensely rewarding." 7(p7) It is not predetermined that change will be beneficial or detrimental for all. Nor is radical change inevitable. This crisis, like others before it, has been influenced by many factors. Who is harmed, who survives, and who benefits are all shaped by existing structures of governance and power and the distribution of resources during and in the aftermath of the crisis. Government policies shape the pandemic's course and consequences. Societies may simply revert to the status quo, stimulating economic recovery by returning to an old world order of polluting industries and consumption-based growth. 8 Early in the pandemic, it was suggested that the speed of government responses left little time for political lobbying and that there did not appear to be evidence of powerful vested interests that could gain from a worsening of the crisis. 9 Subsequently, however, serious abuses have come to light. 10 As advocates for human and environmental health and justice, we must reject a return to the old ways of working. To galvanize action in ways favorable to people and the planet, we must not only propose new ways but also understand the substantial forces that will oppose change, or seek to "own" it for their personal ends, as well as the circumstances under which favorable changes can prevail. Here we expand on these considerations and explore what systems, ideas, and institutions are needed to build a healthier and fairer future. There
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: people's inalienable right reasserts seed p519 petro‐pedagogy lawyers Upshur Talisman COVID‐19 alcohol COIs UK p458 lockdown p1648 P‐210 Fracosaurus p53 backstop self‐interest cancer wildlife decades‐long Fontdevila p7 long‐term People's Campaign " 7 " 107 beer p312 Iraq's oil short‐term Tobacco Alcohol" free‐market ... p324 directors " corporations skeleton meat lung cancer p21 p10 US " extortionate people school‐to‐prison pipe‐line human ultra‐processed p8 line postpandemic human rights p15 trillion‐dollar p131 Cynicism tobacco p518 Saltman oil conflict‐of‐interest public‐sector let Oil" people's counterdiscourse Harshly heart Producers bodies children p1209 p22 p76 high‐income foci central banks funds gas‐led her
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:There are always those who seek to benefit from a crisis. This time, some individuals and organizations mobilized swiftly to seize advantage and dissipate the threat posed to their interests, regardless of the detriment to society and the environment. For example, a US senator is reported to have used his privileged knowledge to unload stocks and warn political funders about the anticipated severity of the pandemic while at the same time publicly endorsing the Trump administration's downplaying of the likely impacts. 11 In addition, major corporations like airlines acted swiftly to influence government responses, lobbying for bailouts and threatening job cuts despite years of buying back their own shares instead of investing in long‐term resilience. 11 Conservative US think tanks exploited fear of the virus to counter or repeal bans on plastic bags by claiming that reusable bags posed a greater risk of viral spread. 12 , 13 Even the US Environmental Protection Agency, following lobbying by the energy industry, announced that it would forgive violations of pollution regulations if they could be proved to be due to the pandemic. 14 Finally, many free‐market think tanks and foundations with links to harmful industries issued statements on how governments should respond to the pandemic and economic recovery in line with their deregulatory agendas. One US think tank, The Heritage Foundation, sent a "gentle reminder" to the Irish government to be aware that its spending could get out of control and that it needed to "go away as quickly as possible." 15 Australia appears to be set on a course for a "gas‐led recovery" informed by the recommendations of a controversial recovery commission with links to mining and fossil fuel industries. 16 , 17 , 18 Powerful actors who establish, maintain, and benefit from the status quo typically act to influence "change moments" like those created by the pandemic. Both the problem definition and the proposed solutions—whose vision of the future should guide our actions—will be highly contested. 19 Klein documented the dark politics behind disasters, in which a first disaster (e.g., COVID‐19) is often followed by a second disaster when those with power and resources act to capitalize on the first. 20 Solnit similarly described how "at large in disaster are two populations: a great majority that tends toward altruism and mutual aid and a minority whose callousness and self‐interest often become a second disaster. The majority often act against their own presumptive beliefs in selfishness and competition, but the minority sticks to its ideology." 7 (p131) History teaches us that harmful industries act to benefit from crises, with many examples of how those in high‐income countries export, create, or capitalize on crises in other countries or regions, often in the context of their weaker regulatory systems. The tobacco industry, for example, has benefited significantly from exploitation of crises, often with support from governments, with the two world wars playing a crucial role in the growth of smoking. 21 , 22 Tobacco interests were even served by the Marshall Plan to "rebuild" Europe. 22 "Big Alcohol" benefited from the daily provisions of beer to the Rwandan army in the early 1990s and from the widespread consumption of beer by the perpetrators during the Rwandan genocide. 23 The oil industry has benefited from crisis and instability, 24 with one analysis demonstrating that every crisis in the Middle East over the 50 years before 2004 was followed by periods in which the major oil companies outperformed the Fortune 500 average. 25 "Big Oil" lobbied both the US and UK governments on the importance of Iraq's oil fields to its interests. Then, following the invasion, the largest contracts in the history of the oil industry were signed. 26 , 27 Hinnebusch's historical analysis argues that the Iraq invasion served the interests of the US oil‐arms‐construction complex. 26 As advocates for a healthier future make their case, they can expect powerful opposition. Producers of harmful products are adept at navigating threats to their profits, such as stricter regulation of their activities, and have developed a playbook of tactics to spread doubt and delay change. 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 The precise strategies may differ. ExxonMobil adopted a dual strategy. Its own climate change research was distributed among "private" fora seeking to "provide Exxon with the credentials required to speak with authority in this area" while simultaneously publishing public‐facing advertorials in the mainstream media intended to "emphasize the uncertainty in scientific conclusions regarding the potential enhanced Greenhouse effect." 38 (p15) These tactics come together in the phenomenon of denialism, which in the case of the alcohol industry, like the tobacco industry before it, includes cancer denialism. 39 , 40 , 41 In other cases, silence may b
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