mannan oligosaccharide increases serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory CORD-Papers-2021-10-25 (Version 1)

Title: Mannan oligosaccharide increases serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(,)(2)
Abstract: Mannan-containing products are capable of modulating immune responses in animals. However, different products may have diverse immunomodulation. The experiment was conducted to examine effects of mannan oligosaccharide (Actigen; ACT) on growth performance and serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 32 PRRSV-negative pigs (3 wk old) were randomly assigned from within blocks to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and ACT addition (0.04%); and with and without PRRSV] in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW within sex. Ancestry was equalized across treatments. Pigs (8/treatment) were kept individually in each pen. After 2 wk of an 8-wk period of feeding the treatments, pigs received an intranasal inoculation of PRRSV or sham medium at 5 wk of age. Infection by PRRSV decreased ADG, ADFI, and G:F throughout the experiment (P < 0.01). Actigen did not affect ADG (P = 0.450), but decreased (P = 0.047) ADFI from 28 to 42 days postinoculation (DPI). During that time, ACT improved G:F in infected pigs but not in sham controls (interaction, P = 0.009). Dietary ACT did not affect viremia in infected pigs (P > 0.05), but increased PRRSV-specific antibody titer at 35 DPI (P = 0.042). Infection with PRRSV induced the febrile responses of pigs from 3 to 10 DPI (P < 0.001) with return to normal at 14 DPI. During the experimental period, the rectal temperature of pigs was found slightly elevated by ACT (P = 0.045). Infected pigs had greater serum concentrations of IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10, and haptoglobin (Hp) than sham controls (P < 0.001). These results indicate that PRRSV stimulated secretion of cytokines involved in innate, T-helper 1, and T-regulatory immune responses. Actigen tended to decrease the serum TNF- concentration regardless of PRRSV (P = 0.058). The ACT PRRSV interaction was significant for IL-1 (P = 0.016), IL-12 (P = 0.026), and Hp (P = 0.047), suggesting that infected pigs fed ACT had greater serum concentrations of these mediators than those fed the control. The increases in IL-1 and IL-12 may favorably promote innate and T-cell immune functions in infected pigs fed ACT. Feeding ACT may be useful as ACT is related to increased PRRSV antibody titers and G:F in infected pigs at certain times during infection.
Published: 8/25/2012
Journal: J Anim Sci
DOI: 10.2527/jas.2011-4518
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4518
Author Name: Che, T M
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/che_t_m
Author Name: Song, M
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/song_m
Author Name: Liu, Y
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/liu_y
Author Name: Johnson, R W
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/johnson_r_w
Author Name: Kelley, K W
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/kelley_k_w
Author Name: Van Alstine, W G
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/van_alstine_w_g
Author Name: Dawson, K A
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/dawson_k_a
Author Name: Pettigrew, J E
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/pettigrew_j_e
sha: 82aef4de3677637fad5ee904ce9303451cc9a968
license: no-cc
license_url: [no creative commons license associated]
source_x: Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 22367071
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367071
pmcid: PMC7110021
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7110021
url: https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4518 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22367071/
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: serum mannan oligosaccharide Actigen porcine BW weanling pigs pigs F PRRSV DPI ADFI Sus scrofa ACT herds Dulbecco's modifi ed Eagle †P IL-18 Interleukin-1β T cells P-129 PRRSVspecifi c antibody MOS-induced serum immunoglobulin Quantifi serum TNF-α IL-6 B-cell mannan oligosaccharide Pig Improvement Company (PIC hepatocyte-produced Hp self-feeder im-mune Hp (GenWay blood leukocytes plasma St Louis T-cell swine nipple ACT-fed pigs × serum IL-10 cellular light/6-h Lincomycin tube Feed Westbrook, ME tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α BW pig F PRRSV antibody titers ACT × PRRSV Loemba ACT × porcine Nicholasville pigs weanling pigs T-regulatory intramuscular PRRSV clot Serum IFN-γ serum pro-infl Hp ( direct-fed serum anti-infl ammatory mediators porcine macrophages Jung natural killer swine infl uenza virus jugular vein B cell immune cells serum IFN-γ T-helper 1 mannan S/P × 1.4 m circulating T helper 1 IL-1β −80 o C IL-12 interferon Porcine IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cells MOS fortify × PIC line 337 herd secretions TNF-α ACT Blood tissue Saccharomyces cerevisiae anorexia Actigen Hp vacutainer glass blood natural killer cells rectal Serum samples Rectal IL-10 T helper 2 PRRSV-infected pigs Th1 × PRRSV DPI blood samples ADFI body water peripheral blood cell wall pigs fi rst 142.5 μg/mL blood control-fed pigs IFN-γ-secreting cells San Diego serum samples KY PRRSV-specifi c antibodies PRRS virus haptoglobin CA
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Mannan-containing products are capable of modulating immune responses in animals. However, different products may have diverse immunomodulation. The experiment was conducted to examine effects of mannan oligosaccharide (Actigen; ACT) on growth performance and serum concentrations of antibodies and infl ammatory mediators in weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 32 PRRSV-negative pigs (3 wk old) were randomly assigned from within blocks to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and ACT addition (0.04%); and with and without PRRSV] in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW within sex. Ancestry was equalized across treatments. Pigs (8/treatment) were kept individually in each pen. After 2 wk of an 8-wk period of feeding the treatments, pigs received an intranasal inoculation of PRRSV or sham medium at 5 wk of age. Infection by PRRSV decreased ADG, ADFI, and G:F throughout the experiment (P < 0.01). Actigen did not affect ADG (P = 0.450), but decreased (P = 0.047) ADFI from 28 to 42 days postinoculation (DPI). During that time, ACT improved G:F in infected pigs but not in sham controls (interaction, P = 0.009). Dietary ACT did not affect viremia in infected pigs (P > 0.05), but increased PRRSVspecifi c antibody titer at 35 DPI (P = 0.042). Infection with PRRSV induced the febrile responses of pigs from 3 to 10 DPI (P < 0.001) with return to normal at 14 DPI. During the experimental period, the rectal temperature of pigs was found slightly elevated by ACT (P = 0.045). Infected pigs had greater serum concentrations of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10, and haptoglobin (Hp) than sham controls (P < 0.001). These results indicate that PRRSV stimulated secretion of cytokines involved in innate, T-helper 1, and T-regulatory immune responses. Actigen tended to decrease the serum TNF-α concentration regardless of PRRSV (P = 0.058). The ACT × PRRSV interaction was signifi cant for IL-1β (P = 0.016), IL-12 (P = 0.026), and Hp (P = 0.047), suggesting that infected pigs fed ACT had greater serum concentrations of these mediators than those fed the control. The increases in IL-1β and IL-12 may favorably promote innate and T-cell immune functions in infected pigs fed ACT. Feeding ACT may be useful as ACT is related to increased PRRSV antibody titers and G:F in infected pigs at certain times during infection. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) and characterized by reproductive disorders in pregnant sows and respiratory problems in pigs of various ages. The disease is presently a serious concern for the swine industry worldwide and causes a signifi cant loss to swine producers (Neumann et al., 2005; Dietze et al., 2011) . Weak initial innate immune response and ineffi ciency of acquired immunity greatly contribute to persistent or repeated infections in susceptible pigs and herds, and to a some extent, these weakened immune responses may predispose for secondary bacterial co-infections (Mateu and Diaz, 2008; Jung et al., 2009) . Thus, apart from application of other methods to heighten the overall health status of the herd, use of feed ingredients or feed additives including spray-dried animal plasma, direct-fed microbials, plant extracts, and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) has been suggested (Turner et al., 2001; Pettigrew, 2006) . Products of MOS have been demonstrated to be capable of positively modulating immune responses in animals (Davis et al., 2004; Che et al., 2011) . However, different products extracted from the yeast cell wall may have diverse immune-related properties because each fraction differs in polymerization degree of mannan, types of terminal linkages of mannan sequences, structure, and proportion of mannan and β-glucan (Young et al., 1998; Bland et al., 2004; Sheng et al., 2006) . Therefore, evaluation of effect of each specifi c MOS product on the immune responses of the host to certain pathogens is necessary because outcome responses, such as performance and disease resistance, may be altered because of alteration of immunomodulation. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of MOS (Actigen; ACT) on growth performance and serum concentrations of antibodies and infl ammatory mediators in weanling pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV. The experimental protocol was approved by the University of Illinois Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and the Institutional Biosafety Committee. Before commencement of the experiment and PRRSV inoculation, serum samples were collected from pigs at 1 and 5 wk of age to verify if pigs were PRRSV-negative by serological and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) tests. No PRRSV-specifi c antibodies or viruses were detected. Also, pigs were confi rmed to be negat
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: body IL-12 serum IL-10 St Louis × PIC line 337 blood samples mannan haptoglobin porcine TNF-α CA Westbrook, ME B-cell Serum serum IFN-γ herd Actigen IL-18 Jung serum immunoglobulin ACT × PRRSV MOS-induced anorexia hepatocyte-produced Hp B cell IFN-γ-secreting cells plasma vacutainer glass blood × 1.4 m blood leukocytes self-feeder weanling pigs water San Diego T-cell BW serum TNF-α natural killer circulating T helper 1 herds MOS PRRSV-infected pigs Hp ( tissue Rectal KY cell wall PRRSV IL-6 serum samples jugular vein Serum samples serum swine blood peripheral blood pigs porcine macrophages direct-fed swine influenza virus Loemba ADFI Lincomycin Blood Dulbecco's ACT clot intramuscular interferon mannan oligosaccharide PRRS virus nipple IL-10 light/6-h Nicholasville tube tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α P-129 Hp Hp (GenWay T helper 2 F T cells ACT × Th1 S/P × IFN-γ pig −80°C fortify natural killer cells IL-1β secretions Interleukin-1β Pig Improvement Company (PIC IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cells DPI cellular immune cells Porcine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Feed
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) and characterized by reproductive disorders in pregnant sows and respiratory problems in pigs of various ages. The disease is presently a serious concern for the swine industry worldwide and causes a significant loss to swine producers (Neumann et al., 2005; Dietze et al., 2011). Weak initial innate immune response and inefficiency of acquired immunity greatly contribute to persistent or repeated infections in susceptible pigs and herds, and to a some extent, these weakened immune responses may predispose for secondary bacterial co-infections (Mateu and Diaz, 2008; Jung et al., 2009). Thus, apart from application of other methods to heighten the overall health status of the herd, use of feed ingredients or feed additives including spray-dried animal plasma, direct-fed microbials, plant extracts, and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) has been suggested (Turner et al., 2001; Pettigrew, 2006). Products of MOS have been demonstrated to be capable of positively modulating immune responses in animals (Davis et al., 2004; Che et al., 2011). However, different products extracted from the yeast cell wall may have diverse immune-related properties because each fraction differs in polymerization degree of mannan, types of terminal linkages of mannan sequences, structure, and proportion of mannan and β-glucan (Young et al., 1998; Bland et al., 2004; Sheng et al., 2006). Therefore, evaluation of effect of each specific MOS product on the immune responses of the host to certain pathogens is necessary because outcome responses, such as performance and disease resistance, may be altered because of alteration of immunomodulation. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of MOS (Actigen; ACT) on growth performance and serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs experimentally infected with PRRSV. Before commencement of the experiment and PRRSV inoculation, serum samples were collected from pigs at 1 and 5 wk of age to verify if pigs were PRRSV-negative by serological and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) tests. No PRRSV-specific antibodies or viruses were detected. Also, pigs were confirmed to be negative for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and swine influenza virus. A total of 32 weaned pigs [3-wk-old; 6.3 ± 0.6 kg BW; Pig Improvement Company (PIC) line C-22 female × PIC line 337 male], free of PRRSV, were transported from a University research farm to the experimental site, and upon arrival they were placed in disease-containment chambers. Each pig received a daily intramuscular injection of Lincomycin (11 mg/kg of BW; Pharmacia and Upjohn Co., Kalamazoo, MI) for 3 consecutive days after arrival to prevent infections. Pigs were blocked on the basis of initial BW within sex into 4 BW blocks, resulting in a total of 8 blocks. They were randomly assigned from within the same BW block to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and ACT supplementation (0.04%); and with and without PRRSV] in a randomized complete block design. Actigen (Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY), a concentrated mannose-rich oligosaccharide fraction, was derived from the cell wall of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ancestry was equalized across treatments for all measurements throughout the experimental period. Pigs inoculated with PRRSV were housed in 1 room and those not inoculated with PRRSV were reared in the other room to avoid cross-contamination. Pigs were penned individually in disease-containment chambers with controlled temperature and a lighting regimen of 18-h light/6-h dark. Chamber temperature was maintained at 32°C for the first 2 wk after pigs arrived, then reduced 2°C each week until the temperature reached 24°C. Containment chambers were separately ventilated with negatively pressurized HEPA-filtered air. Each room contained 8 disease-containment chambers, each of which had 2 pens. A pen measured 0.6 × 1.4 m in floor area and had a plastic-coated expanded-metal floor. There was a self-feeder and nipple waterer in each pen, and pigs had access to feed and water at all times. The basal diets (Table 1) were formulated to contain all of the essential nutrients, which met or exceeded nutritional requirements of pigs (NRC, 1998). Treatment diets were formulated by supplementing the basal diets with 0.04% ACT throughout the 8-wk experimental period. This supplemental amount of ACT was recommended by the manufacturer (Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY). After 2 wk of an 8-wk period of feeding the experimental diets, one-half of pigs were intranasally inoculated with 2 mL of a PRRSV medium containing 1 × 105 50% tissue culture infective dose. The viral strain, Purdue isolate P-129, was obtained from Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN). The other one-half of pigs received 2 mL of a sham m
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