inadequate level of knowledge mixed outlook and poor adherence to covid 19 prevention CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Inadequate level of knowledge mixed outlook and poor adherence to COVID-19 prevention guideline among Ethiopians
Abstract: COVID-19 has a potential to cause chaos in Ethiopia due to the countrys already daunting economic and social challenges. Living and working conditions are highly conducive for transmission as people live in crowded inter-generational households that often lack running water and other basic sanitary facilities. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge attitudes and practices (KAP) of Ethiopians toward COVID-19 following the introduction of state of emergency by the Ethiopian government to curb the spread of the disease. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in nine reginal states and two chartered cities. Data for demographic Knowledge attitude and practice toward COVID-19 were collected through telephone interview from 1570 participants. Descriptive and bivariate analyses using chi-square test t-test or analysis of variance were performed as appropriate. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to measure the relationship between the categorical dependent variables and one or more socio-demographic independent variables with two-tailed at =0.05 significance level and 95% of confidence interval. The level of good knowledge favourable attitude and good practice among the respondents were 42% 53.8% and 24.3% respectively. Being rural resident older than 50 years having at least primary education being resident of Amhara and Oromia regions were independent predictors of knowledge level. While being rural resident married employed having at least basic education being residents of Afar Amhara Gambela Oromia and Somali regions were found to be the best predictors of the attitude being rural resident government employee having at least basic education and living outside of the capital were the independent predictors of practice level of the respondents. The finding revealed that Ethiopians have inadequate level of knowledge and are generally have a mixed outlook on overcoming the pandemic with poor adherence to COVID-19 prevention practice. reinforcing preventive measures and intensifying sensitization campaigns to fill the knowledge gap and persuading people to follow the preventive measures set by the government with concurrent evaluation of the impacts of these measures on knowledge and practice is highly recommended to mitigate the disease.
Published: 2020-07-24
Journal: bioRxiv
DOI: 10.1101/2020.07.22.215590
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.22.215590
Author Name: Negera Edessa
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/negera_edessa
Author Name: Demissie Tesfaye Moti
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/demissie_tesfaye_moti
Author Name: Tafess Ketema
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/tafess_ketema
sha: 5652b8d43ae38e5c6b6eda4f6e249d7669912729
license: biorxiv
license_url: https://www.biorxiv.org/about-biorxiv
source_x: BioRxiv; WHO
source_x_url: https://www.biorxiv.org/https://www.who.int/
url: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.22.215590
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: Amhara COVID-19 participants Ethiopians Gambela people KAP 3-8 COVID-19 related 398 SARS-CoV-2 people 2-meter social distancing COVID-19 participants 3-9 persons lockdown residents CoV-2 COVID-19 61 Finfinnee COVID-19 virus refugees water KAP children
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:COVID-19 has a potential to cause chaos in Ethiopia due to the country's already daunting 8 economic and social challenges. Living and working conditions are highly conducive for 9 transmission, as people live in crowded inter-generational households that often lack running 10 water and other basic sanitary facilities. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the 11 knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Ethiopians toward COVID-19 following the 12 introduction of state of emergency by the Ethiopian government to curb the spread of the 13 disease. A cross-sectional study design was conducted in nine reginal states and two chartered 14 cities. Data for demographic, Knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 were 15 collected through telephone interview from 1570 participants. Descriptive and bivariate 16 analyses using chi-square test, t-test or analysis of variance were performed as appropriate. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to measure the relationship between 18 the categorical dependent variables and one or more socio-demographic independent variables 19 with two-tailed at α=0.05 significance level and 95% of confidence interval. The level of good 20 knowledge, favourable attitude and good practice among the respondents were 42%, 53.8% 21 and 24.3% respectively. Being rural resident, older than 50 years, having at least primary 22 education, being resident of Amhara and Oromia regions were independent predictors of 23 knowledge level. While being rural resident, married, employed, having at least basic 24 education, being residents of Afar, Amhara, Gambela, Oromia and Somali regions were found 25 to be the best predictors of the attitude, being rural resident, government employee, having at 26 least basic education, and living outside of the capital were the independent predictors of 27 practice level of the respondents. The finding revealed that Ethiopians have inadequate level 28 of knowledge and are generally have a mixed outlook on overcoming the pandemic with poor 29 adherence to COVID-19 prevention practice. reinforcing preventive measures and intensifying 30 sensitization campaigns to fill the knowledge gap and persuading people to follow the 31 preventive measures set by the government with concurrent evaluation of the impacts of these 32 measures on knowledge and practice is highly recommended to mitigate the disease. 33 157 Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 as a pandemic on the 11 th of March 2020, 37 after it has spread to 113 countries worldwide (2). 38 According to current evidence, the COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted rapidly between 39 people through respiratory droplets and contact routes (3). Airborne transmission has been 40 suggested by some studies (4, 5) . Recent experimental studies have examined the stability of 41 SARS-CoV-2, showing that the virus remains infectious in aerosols for hours (5) and on 42 surfaces up to days (5, 6). The mean incubation period of COVID-19 is about 3-9 days with a 43 range between 0-24 days (3, 7). However, the mean time between successive cases in a chain 44 of transmission is about 3-8 days suggesting that one becomes contagious before symptoms 45 present about 2.5 days earlier from the onset of symptoms (8) . Studies estimated that about 46 44% of transmission of COVID-19 occur before the onset of symptoms (9). The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Ethiopia on 13 th of March 2020 (10). The state 48 of emergency was declared by the government on 8 th of April 2020 to control the pandemic. 49 The state of emergency includes closing schools, banning public gatherings and requiring 50 employees to work from home (10). The introduction of the state of emergency has been 51 welcomed by most citizens and institutions but was not without critiques from some political 52 opposition parties. While the federal and regional governments announced measures such as 53 suspending large gatherings and inter-city public transport, authorities have not introduced a 54 comprehensive lockdown to try to contain the virus due to some real challenges. Firstly, most 55 citizens live day-to-day and they may see a complete lockdown as counterproductive and unfair 56 to those on the bottom rungs of society. Secondly, complete lockdown could worsen the life 57 of the vulnerable segments of society such as street children, internally displaced persons and 58 refugees (11). 59 COVID-19 has the potential to cause chaos in Ethiopia due to the country's already daunting 60 economic and social challenges. On one hand, the public health risks presented by COVID-19 61 are vast. Living and working conditions are highly conducive for transmission, as people live 62 in crowded inter-generational households that often lack running water and other basic sanitary 63 facilities. Allowing economic activity to continue unchecked could lead to huge infections 64 within months, with serious cases quickly overwhelming the alread
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