exploring the impacts of the covid 19 pandemic on modality profiles for non mandatory CORD-Papers-2021-10-25 (Version 1)

Title: Exploring the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on modality profiles for non-mandatory trips in the Greater Toronto Area
Abstract: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has drastically altered daily life in cities across the world. To slow the spread of COVID-19, many countries have introduced mobility restrictions, ordered the temporary closure of businesses, and encouraged social distancing. These policies have directly and indirectly influenced travel behaviour, particularly modal preferences. The purpose of this paper to explore modality profiles for non-mandatory trips and analyze how they have changed in response to the pandemic and pandemic-related public health policies. The data used for this study were collected from web-based surveys conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Modality profiles were identified through the application of latent class cluster analysis, with six modality profiles being identified for both the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. The results indicate that the importance of public transit has declined during the pandemic, while the roles of private vehicles and active modes have become more prominent. However, individuals changes in modal preferences vary based on their pre-pandemic modality profile. In particular, it appears that pre-pandemic transit users with access to a private vehicle have substituted public transit for travel by private vehicle, while those without private vehicle access are continuing to use public transit for non-mandatory trips. Consequently, pandemic-related transportation policies should consider those who do not have access to a private vehicle and aim to help those making non-mandatory trips using transit or active modes comply with local public health guidelines while travelling. The results highlight how the changes in modal preferences that occurred due to the pandemic differ among different segments of the population.
Published: 6/1/2021
Journal: Transp Policy (Oxf)
DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.05.028
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.05.028
Author Name: Loa, Patrick
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/loa_patrick
Author Name: Hossain, Sanjana
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hossain_sanjana
Author Name: Mashrur, Sk Md
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mashrur_sk_md
Author Name: Liu, Yicong
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/liu_yicong
Author Name: Wang, Kaili
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wang_kaili
Author Name: Ong, Felita
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/ong_felita
Author Name: Habib, Khandker Nurul
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/habib_khandker_nurul
sha: 61fbe599a6945588ec41f08a82e4ae9a2a91070c
license: no-cc
license_url: [no creative commons license associated]
source_x: Elsevier; Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.elsevier.com/https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 34608360
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34608360
pmcid: PMC8481204
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481204
url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/34608360/ https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/pii/S0967070X21001724 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.05.028 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967070X21001724
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: COVID-19 Peel people Polzin TNCs Bucsky users/pedestrians Brown body GTA LCCA Figure A1 Wang, 2014 Budd NT} P i (j) Represents Vuchic poLCA TP MoD Lin Ozaydin streets segments women SMC Ohnmacht Lyft G 2 Loa left IMF OT GTA residents pedestrians/ on-street individuals Wang, SiSTM Human Research Protocol Number 39409 farebox revenues travellers stem ... ActiveTO lockdowns K j El-Geneidy human Fig. 1 class j P i (k) Represents TU sections Beck COVID-19 coronavirus BIC PTU face Human Research Protocol Number 39392 Nobis (2007 pedestrians/drivers Non-mandatory out-of-home parks Ontario transi- Let π rjk Hensher, 2020a Shamshiripour lockdown Oum pedestrian/transit Hensher (2020b Fig. 2 grocery respondents SD, PD, Beck & Hensher (Beck MM} k Dharmowijoyo foot R PV Hanibuchi men Mokhtarian PM longer-distance residents
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has drastically altered daily life in cities across the world. To slow the spread of COVID-19, many countries have introduced mobility restrictions, ordered the temporary closure of businesses, and encouraged social distancing. These policies have directly and indirectly influenced travel behaviour, particularly modal preferences. The purpose of this paper to explore modality profiles for non-mandatory trips and analyze how they have changed in response to the pandemic and pandemic-related public health policies. The data used for this study were collected from web-based surveys conducted in the Greater Toronto Area. Modality profiles were identified through the application of latent class cluster analysis, with six modality profiles being identified for both the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. The results indicate that the importance of public transit has declined during the pandemic, while the roles of private vehicles and active modes have become more prominent. However, individuals' changes in modal preferences vary based on their prepandemic modality profile. In particular, it appears that pre-pandemic transit users with access to a private vehicle have substituted public transit for travel by private vehicle, while those without private vehicle access are continuing to use public transit for non-mandatory trips. Consequently, pandemic-related transportation policies should consider those who do not have access to a private vehicle and aim to help those making non-mandatory trips using transit or active modes comply with local public health guidelines while travelling. The results highlight how the changes in modal preferences that occurred due to the pandemic differ among different segments of the population. The novel coronavirus disease has fundamentally changed daily life in cities across the world. In March 2020, COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization due to its severity and the extent to which it had spread globally (World Health Organization (WHO), 2020a). In an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19, some countries have implemented travel restrictions, locked down cities, and began to encourage social distancing (International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2020). In addition, the rapid adoption of information and communications technology (ICT) that was observed in many aspects of daily life (including remote learning, telecommuting, and online ordering) led to reduced travel in cities (The World Bank, 2020) . Social distancing strategies, along with public health concerns, have directly and indirectly impacted travel behaviour and passenger transport. Besides, the implementation of telecommuting can create opportunities for individuals to spend more time with their families, as they no longer have to commute to their workplace. As a result of these factors, the activity-travel patterns of both individuals and households have transformed abruptly. Consequently, an investigation into the alterations in travel behaviour that have resulted from the pandemic is needed to understand the impacts of the pandemic on mobility and accessibility. This understanding can inform policies that are geared towards addressing the impacts of the pandemic on passenger transport. Non-mandatory activities play an essential role in satisfying individual needs and positively contribute to physical and emotional wellbeing. In the literature, non-mandatory activities are grouped into one of two categoriesmaintenance activities and discretionary activities (Castiglione et al., 2015) . Maintenance activities (such as grocery shopping and visits to healthcare providers) help to ensure that basic human needs are met (Chen and Mokhtarian, 2006) . In contrast, discretionary activities (such as social and recreational activities) help to ensure that psychological needs are met (Dharmowijoyo et al., 2018) . Particularly for older individuals, discretionary activities are viewed as beneficial for their health and quality of life (Davey, 2007) . Individuals tend to have greater control over the timing of non-mandatory trips compared to mandatory trips, which are often defined as trips to work or school (Ortuzar and Willumsen, 2011) . Besides, non-mandatory activities have a greater potential to improve emotional well-being (Zhu and Fan, 2018) . Technological advances, which have facilitated the rise of e-commerce, social networks, and messaging applications, have reshaped how (and where) one can participate in certain non-mandatory activities (Vij et al., 2017) . In addition, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led many to re-evaluate the manner in (and the extent to) which they participate in non-mandatory activities, particularly if they must leave their homes to do so. Given the important role that non-mandatory activities play in well-being, it is critical to understand how travel for these activities has been affected by the pandemic. Aside from out-of-home activity par
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: COVID-19 people foot Yijk Budd individuals LCCA ActiveTO on-street Beck TP GTA Wang, Hanibuchi jPi(k Lyft IMF grocery women pedestrians/drivers users/pedestrians Bucsky Ozaydin El-Geneidy stem human Mokhtarian stay-at-home TNCs MM} k SiSTM Oum lockdown by:(2)f(Yi)=∑r=1Rpr∗f(Yi|r)=∑r=1Rpr∏j=1J∏k=1Kj(πjrk)Yijkwhere:∑r=1Rpr=1 Vuchic TU ... left PV segments R NT} Pi(j,k Ohnmacht Kj Fig. 2 PM Figure A1 body Peel Nobis (2007) face pedestrian/transit respondents SMC Human Research Protocol Number 39409 parks farebox revenues " OT sections men Fig. 4 Polzin Loa lockdown" Brown travellers Human Research Protocol Number 39392 residents Wang, 2014 longer-distance Hensher, 2020a Lin kth out-of-home Beck & Hensher (Beck streets coronavirus " Ontario PTU Dharmowijoyo Shamshiripour lockdowns k.(3)Pi(j Non-mandatory Ontario
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has fundamentally changed daily life in cities across the world. In March 2020, COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization due to its severity and the extent to which it had spread globally (World Health Organization (WHO), 2020a). In an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19, some countries have implemented travel restrictions, locked down cities, and began to encourage social distancing (International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2020). In addition, the rapid adoption of information and communications technology (ICT) that was observed in many aspects of daily life (including remote learning, telecommuting, and online ordering) led to reduced travel in cities (The World Bank, 2020). Social distancing strategies, along with public health concerns, have directly and indirectly impacted travel behaviour and passenger transport. Besides, the implementation of telecommuting can create opportunities for individuals to spend more time with their families, as they no longer have to commute to their workplace. As a result of these factors, the activity-travel patterns of both individuals and households have transformed abruptly. Consequently, an investigation into the alterations in travel behaviour that have resulted from the pandemic is needed to understand the impacts of the pandemic on mobility and accessibility. This understanding can inform policies that are geared towards addressing the impacts of the pandemic on passenger transport. Non-mandatory activities play an essential role in satisfying individual needs and positively contribute to physical and emotional well-being. In the literature, non-mandatory activities are grouped into one of two categories – maintenance activities and discretionary activities (Castiglione et al., 2015). Maintenance activities (such as grocery shopping and visits to healthcare providers) help to ensure that basic human needs are met (Chen and Mokhtarian, 2006). In contrast, discretionary activities (such as social and recreational activities) help to ensure that psychological needs are met (Dharmowijoyo et al., 2018). Particularly for older individuals, discretionary activities are viewed as beneficial for their health and quality of life (Davey, 2007). Individuals tend to have greater control over the timing of non-mandatory trips compared to mandatory trips, which are often defined as trips to work or school (Ortuzar and Willumsen, 2011). Besides, non-mandatory activities have a greater potential to improve emotional well-being (Zhu and Fan, 2018). Technological advances, which have facilitated the rise of e-commerce, social networks, and messaging applications, have reshaped how (and where) one can participate in certain non-mandatory activities (Vij et al., 2017). In addition, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led many to re-evaluate the manner in (and the extent to) which they participate in non-mandatory activities, particularly if they must leave their homes to do so. Given the important role that non-mandatory activities play in well-being, it is critical to understand how travel for these activities has been affected by the pandemic. Aside from out-of-home activity participation, the pandemic has also significantly impacted modal preferences. Early studies on the topic have found that people appear to be less willing to use public transit and ride-sourcing services – modes where one can encounter strangers and come into contact with shared surfaces (Shamshiripour et al., 2020). Besides, it appears that the utilization of private vehicles and active modes (i.e., walking and cycling) have increased since the start of the pandemic (Sung and Monschauer, 2020; Teixeira and Lopes, 2020; Ozaydin and Ulengin, 2020; Zhang et al., 2021). Although these studies offer valuable insights, they are mainly descriptive in nature. They do not attempt to examine the impacts of COVID-19 (and the associated public health policies) on the approaches that people take towards satisfying their mobility needs – defined in this study as a modality profile. In this study, modality profiles are characterized by the mode (or combination of modes) of travel that are used by an individual. Understanding how modality profiles have changed in response to the implementation of pandemic-related policies can shed light on mobility and accessibility issues that have arisen as a result of the pandemic and can help identify members of the population whose travel has been significantly impacted by the pandemic. This information can be used to develop policies that aim to mitigate the adverse impacts of the pandemic on accessibility, and by extension, transportation equity. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the impact of pandemic-related policies on modality profiles for non-mandatory trips among residents of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Specifically, the investigation examined the modality profiles that exist for non-ma
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