epidemiological and public health requirements for covid 19 contact tracing apps and CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Epidemiological and public health requirements for COVID-19 contact tracing apps and their evaluation
Abstract: Digital contact tracing is a public health intervention. It should be integrated with local health policy provide rapid and accurate notifications to exposed individuals and encourage high app uptake and adherence to quarantine. Real-time monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness of app-based contact tracing is key for improvement and public trust.
Published: 2021-02-10
Author Name: Colizza Vittoria
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/colizza_vittoria
Author Name: Grill Eva
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/grill_eva
Author Name: Mikolajczyk Rafael
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mikolajczyk_rafael
Author Name: Cattuto Ciro
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/cattuto_ciro
Author Name: Kucharski Adam
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/kucharski_adam
Author Name: Riley Steven
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/riley_steven
Author Name: Kendall Michelle
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/kendall_michelle
Author Name: Lythgoe Katrina
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/lythgoe_katrina
Author Name: Abeler Dorner Lucie
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/abeler_dorner_lucie
Author Name: Wymant Chris
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wymant_chris
Author Name: Bonsall David
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/bonsall_david
Author Name: Ferretti Luca
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/ferretti_luca
Author Name: Fraser Christophe
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/fraser_christophe
sha: 70f848014d189728cc792309bb8186a5caa69889
license: arxiv
license_url: https://arxiv.org/help/license
source_x: ArXiv
source_x_url: http://arxiv.org/
arxiv_id: 2102.05445
arxiv_id_url: START http://arxiv.org/abs/
url: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.05445v1.pdf
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: app-based contact heart App-based Briers harder-to-reach Immuni Swiss app contacts lockdowns SARS-CoV-2 persons app-based London in 1854 COVID-19 case-driven people Swiss [SwissCovid] app PEPP-PT cholera Lockdowns Vaudenay 2020a Farronato 2020 b]
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Digital contact tracing is a public health intervention. It should be integrated with local health policy, provide rapid and accurate notifications to exposed individuals, and encourage high app uptake and adherence to quarantine. Real-time monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness of app-based contact tracing is key for improvement and public trust. In early 2020, COVID-19 caused a world-wide pandemic despite the fact that many countries had epidemic preparedness plans. Experienced teams of contact tracers were in place to interrupt the early phases of domestic transmission, but were soon overwhelmed in many places by the number of cases. In the absence of a vaccine, governments looked at additional non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent the spread of infections. As SARS-CoV-2 is an airborne respiratory pathogen, physical separation of individuals through generalised lockdowns and travel restrictions proved effective, but came at great social, psychological and economic cost. Most countries also increased their focus on case-driven interventions such as identification of clusters and cases, and tracing their contacts. Lockdowns are essentially wholly non-specific quarantines which affect the whole population. Contact tracing, on the other hand, restricts quarantining to those with recent contact with known or suspected cases. A combination of the latter with less disruptive preventive measures like physical distancing and the wearing of face masks is clearly the preferred way to suppress the epidemic in the absence of a vaccine. Contact tracing is a standard tool for outbreak control of infectious diseases, and has been used at least since John Snow investigated a cholera outbreak in London in 1854 . Contact tracing traditionally involves the analysis of social contact information acquired by interview with confirmed or suspected cases. Contacts are given specific health advice, according to the characteristics of the pathogen and social context of transmission. Modern day partner notification in sexual health, for example, is a form of contact tracing that delivers treatments to sexual partners of cases that may have occurred months or years in the past. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, manual contact tracing programmes were established in many countries, but were not equipped or staffed to the extent required to prevent a pandemic caused by a highly infectious virus like SARS-CoV-2. In addition, contact tracing for COVID-19 proved especially challenging, owing to the short generation time of SARS-CoV-2 and the high rates of pre-symptomatic transmission. The most successful programmes in Singapore and South Korea focused on speed and effectiveness and quickly linked tracing to high throughput testing. Several modelling studies of the COVID-19 epidemic identified that contact tracing needs to reach contacts within 48 hours from the onset of symptoms in the index case to stop transmission chains and prevent onward infections [Kretzschmar 2020 , Kucharski 2020 ]. Digital contact tracing apps have been proposed to help control the spread of COVID-19 ] and now represent a key component of many national strategies for suppressing the epidemic [Hinch 2020 , O'Neill 2020 , alongside bolstered conventional manual contact tracing programmes. These apps implement privacy-preserving proximity detection and exposure notification. App-based contact tracing is first and foremost a public health intervention. Designing an effective app requires expertise from diverse fields including engineering [Sattler 2020 ], information security [Troncoso 2020, PEPP-PT, Vaudenay 2020a,b], ethics , Morley 2020 , and behavioural and social sciences , Farronato 2020 . Contributions from all these areas are essential yet outside the scope of this commentary. We will therefore only touch on them where they intersect with epidemiological and public health considerations. SARS-CoV-2 is likely to become endemic in many parts of the world, and while widespread immunity from vaccination is the final goal, there is still no certainty about how quickly vaccination will become available across countries and age groups and how long its protection will last. For the foreseeable future, most countries will continue to rely on a combination of different measures, including vaccination, social distancing, mask wearing and contact tracing. For contact tracing apps to achieve their primary purpose of substantially reducing COVID-19 transmission, epidemiological considerations must be at the heart of their design. We present five key epidemiological and public health requirements which COVID-19 contact tracing apps should satisfy. The advice given by an app notification should be adjustable to remain consistent with local health policies. Ideally the app should be integrated within the full range of public health interventions, such as providing information on the steps to follow upon notification, access to testing, medical care and advice on isolati
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