emerging from covid 19 lessons for action on climate change and health in cities CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Emerging from COVID-19: Lessons for Action on Climate Change and Health in Cities
Published: 2021-03-01
Journal: J Urban Health
DOI: 10.1007/s11524-020-00501-2
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00501-2
Author Name: Milner James
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/milner_james
Author Name: Davies Mike
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/davies_mike
Author Name: Haines Andy
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/haines_andy
Author Name: Huxley Rachel
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/huxley_rachel
Author Name: Michie Susan
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/michie_susan
Author Name: Robertson Lawrie
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/robertson_lawrie
Author Name: Siri Jos
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/siri_jos
Author Name: Wilkinson Paul
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wilkinson_paul
sha: 989ef0d9d6887fdff1eb564948f59279737af1e4
license: cc-by
license_url: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
source_x: Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 33649906
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33649906
pmcid: PMC7920547
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920547
url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33649906/ https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-020-00501-2
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: people PW Health' green space decade-further heart women hubs pavements [12] [1] communities-for time-could residents men COVID-19 post-COVID conditions-such green residence-an zero-carbon [7] COVID- 19 [2] CUSSH GHG http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. [209387/Z/17/Z].Open Health' line CUSSH
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The COVID-19 pandemic has required health protection responses with far-reaching consequences for society, livelihoods, and the wider economy. Future enquiries will in time evaluate the success of responses at all scales. But emerging lessons highlight immediate implications for addressing the growing climate crisis through a recovery from COVID-19 that advances population health, economic regeneration and climate action [1] . Cities are where many of the most critical actions for health, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction, resilience and risk reduction must be taken, supported by national governments, multi-lateral agencies and other stakeholders [2] . Rapid decarbonisation across all sectors of society is needed over this decade-further delay will seriously reduce the possibility of achieving the targets set out in the Paris Agreement [3] . Now is therefore an especially important juncture for cities to act for both the near-term imperatives of the post-COVID recovery and the long-term welfare of their residents and the planet. COVID-19 has illustrated how quickly and dramatically the normal functioning of society can be changed by disruptive forces. Briefly, it has shown that: & All societies, even the most advanced, are inherently vulnerable to unexpected (or inadequately planned for) disruptions, which can have severe and wideranging domino effects, especially when necessary infrastructure and preparedness are absent [4] . & Scientific evidence is crucial in guiding policy and needs to be managed and communicated in a way that conveys uncertainty, yet inspires broad acceptance by the population [5] . & The negative effects of COVID-19 are unequally distributed within societies, with appreciably greater impacts in socio-economically deprived and vulnerable populations [6] . & The social and economic disruptions of COVID- 19 have yielded temporary improvements in air quality in some locations because of reduced fossil fuel use [7] and inspired calls for accelerated action for a zero-carbon economy [8, 9] . & Large-scale action to change public behaviours is possible at breath-taking pace in an emergency, but it has major adverse socioeconomic impacts that could be reduced or avoided through proactive planning. A key imperative for recovery is to target investments at actions that support long-term health and sustainability, as well as resilience. Below we highlight seven areas that deserve attention because they present opportunities to build a positive legacy for people and the planet. 1. Embedding action to promote active travel and decarbonise transport Concern over COVID-19 means that use of public transport will be diminished for the immediate future [10] . A shift to increasing reliance on private motor vehicles would however increase congestion, inequities, pollution and GHG emissions. In contrast, increased walking and cycling, where feasible, is not only an essential part of transport solutions but is widely recognized as strategically desirable for the long-term from both environmental and health perspectives [11] . The increased readiness to take up active travel during the COVID-19 pandemic presents a rare opportunity to maximize the implementation of initiatives to promote walking and cycling-including temporary widening of pavements or closures of roads-and make them permanent [12] . Cities around the world have implemented measures to support pedal power over fossil power [12] . These measures will be yet more valuable if also used to catalyse further action. Improvements in public transport infrastructure and scheduling (coupled with altered work and study patterns) will be vital to encourage a return to safe use of public transport, with physical distancing where possible. Most fundamentally, creative thinking is needed to allow people to meet their needs close to their places of residence-an aspiration encapsulated by the concept of the '15-min city' that envisages employment and essential services being available within a short journey [13, 14] . Many people, primarily in higher income settings, have through necessity substituted electronic means of communication for travel during the crisis. For many reasons (including diminished social interactions, mental health and physical activity), it is not desirable that people are forced to adopt socially isolated lifestyles [15] . But there have been clear and widely accepted benefits: some have welcomed the shift to more home-based working and would prefer to rebalance their commitments towards more home working in future [16] . It is clear that much work-related travel (long-distance travel in particular) is not always essential and avoiding it may in some circumstances aid productivity while helping to reduce environmental impacts. It is therefore appropriate to consider how work and travel behaviour may be rebalanced by technology and policy innovation. This should entail consideration of the differential impacts of work patterns o
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: roads— heart zero-carbon men CUSSH green space [12] residents [7] green [1] women PW pavements COVID-19 [4].Scientific post-COVID people [2] GHG
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:The COVID-19 pandemic has required health protection responses with far-reaching consequences for society, livelihoods, and the wider economy. Future enquiries will in time evaluate the success of responses at all scales. But emerging lessons highlight immediate implications for addressing the growing climate crisis through a recovery from COVID-19 that advances population health, economic regeneration and climate action [1]. Cities are where many of the most critical actions for health, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction, resilience and risk reduction must be taken, supported by national governments, multi-lateral agencies and other stakeholders [2]. Rapid decarbonisation across all sectors of society is needed over this decade—further delay will seriously reduce the possibility of achieving the targets set out in the Paris Agreement [3]. Now is therefore an especially important juncture for cities to act for both the near-term imperatives of the post-COVID recovery and the long-term welfare of their residents and the planet. COVID-19 has illustrated how quickly and dramatically the normal functioning of society can be changed by disruptive forces. Briefly, it has shown that:All societies, even the most advanced, are inherently vulnerable to unexpected (or inadequately planned for) disruptions, which can have severe and wide-ranging domino effects, especially when necessary infrastructure and preparedness are absent [4].Scientific evidence is crucial in guiding policy and needs to be managed and communicated in a way that conveys uncertainty, yet inspires broad acceptance by the population [5].The negative effects of COVID-19 are unequally distributed within societies, with appreciably greater impacts in socio-economically deprived and vulnerable populations [6].The social and economic disruptions of COVID-19 have yielded temporary improvements in air quality in some locations because of reduced fossil fuel use [7] and inspired calls for accelerated action for a zero-carbon economy [8, 9].Large-scale action to change public behaviours is possible at breath-taking pace in an emergency, but it has major adverse socioeconomic impacts that could be reduced or avoided through proactive planning. A key imperative for recovery is to target investments at actions that support long-term health and sustainability, as well as resilience. Below we highlight seven areas that deserve attention because they present opportunities to build a positive legacy for people and the planet.Embedding action to promote active travel and decarbonise transport Concern over COVID-19 means that use of public transport will be diminished for the immediate future [10]. A shift to increasing reliance on private motor vehicles would however increase congestion, inequities, pollution and GHG emissions. In contrast, increased walking and cycling, where feasible, is not only an essential part of transport solutions but is widely recognized as strategically desirable for the long-term from both environmental and health perspectives [11]. The increased readiness to take up active travel during the COVID-19 pandemic presents a rare opportunity to maximize the implementation of initiatives to promote walking and cycling—including temporary widening of pavements or closures of roads—and make them permanent [12]. Cities around the world have implemented measures to support pedal power over fossil power [12]. These measures will be yet more valuable if also used to catalyse further action. Improvements in public transport infrastructure and scheduling (coupled with altered work and study patterns) will be vital to encourage a return to safe use of public transport, with physical distancing where possible. Most fundamentally, creative thinking is needed to allow people to meet their needs close to their places of residence—an aspiration encapsulated by the concept of the '15-min city' that envisages employment and essential services being available within a short journey [13, 14].2.Different modes of working Many people, primarily in higher income settings, have through necessity substituted electronic means of communication for travel during the crisis. For many reasons (including diminished social interactions, mental health and physical activity), it is not desirable that people are forced to adopt socially isolated lifestyles [15]. But there have been clear and widely accepted benefits: some have welcomed the shift to more home-based working and would prefer to rebalance their commitments towards more home working in future [16]. It is clear that much work-related travel (long-distance travel in particular) is not always essential and avoiding it may in some circumstances aid productivity while helping to reduce environmental impacts. It is therefore appropriate to consider how work and travel behaviour may be rebalanced by technology and policy innovation. This should entail consideration of the differential impacts of work patterns on men
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