climate action for health and wellbeing in cities a protocol for the systematic development CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Climate action for health and wellbeing in cities: a protocol for the systematic development of a database of peer-reviewed studies using machine learning methods
Abstract: Cities produce more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Action by cities is therefore crucial for climate change mitigation as well as for safeguarding the health and wellbeing of their populations under climate change. Many city governments have made ambitious commitments to climate change mitigation and adaptation and implemented a range of actions to address them. However a systematic record and synthesis of the findings of evaluations of the effect of such actions on human health and wellbeing is currently lacking. This in turn impedes the development of robust knowledge on what constitutes high-impact climate actions of benefit to human health and wellbeing which can inform future action plans their implementation and scale-up. The development of a systematic record of studies reporting climate and health actions in cities is made challenging by the broad landscape of relevant literature scattered across many disciplines and sectors which is challenging to effectively consolidate using traditional literature review methods. This protocol reports an innovative approach for the systematic development of a database of studies of climate change mitigation and adaptation actions implemented in cities and their benefits (or disbenefits) for human health and wellbeing derived from peer-reviewed academic literature. Our approach draws on extensive tailored search strategies and machine learning methods for article classification and tagging to generate a database for subsequent systematic reviews addressing questions of importance to urban decision-makers on climate actions in cities for human health and wellbeing.
Published: 2021-03-05
Journal: Wellcome Open Res
DOI: 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16570.1
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16570.1
Author Name: Belesova Kristine
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/belesova_kristine
Author Name: Callaghan Max
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/callaghan_max
Author Name: Minx Jan C
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/minx_jan_c
Author Name: Creutzig Felix
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/creutzig_felix
Author Name: Turcu Catalina
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/turcu_catalina
Author Name: Hutchinson Emma
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hutchinson_emma
Author Name: Milner James
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/milner_james
Author Name: Crane Melanie
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/crane_melanie
Author Name: Haines Andy
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/haines_andy
Author Name: Davies Michael
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/davies_michael
Author Name: Wilkinson Paul
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wilkinson_paul
sha: d206a8352eb1398630bd8a8df797b6697e86ae81
license: cc-by
license_url: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
source_x: Medline; PMC
source_x_url: https://www.medline.com/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
pubmed_id: 33860107
pubmed_id_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33860107
pmcid: PMC8022210
pmcid_url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022210
url: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/33860107/ https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16570.1
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Keywords Extracted from Text Content: 6:50 https://doi Callaghan M Belesova K human https://doi.org/10.17037/ CPCI-SSH human action(-s C40 languages CO2 Tags renal abstract/ Rennes, Nairobi CPCI-S Berrang-Ford ESCI near-term C40 cities Geneva, mitigation/ carbon blue space masterplans KB ○ Intro/p.5 language joint OSF body ILCEI -Local Governments Python scikit-learn Quéré pre-judge green CUSSH GHG A&HCI sub-block name(-s Arup NGOs Figure 2 COVID-19 Creutzig Ningbo -the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Network people cancers German health/ water SCI-EXPANDED MCC ○ Tag Arabic Ms Jane Falconer librarian human https://doi.org/10.21956/wellcomeopenres.18260.r42963 © 2021 Caiaffa W. ○ study-types Dr Ai Milojevic
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Cities produce more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Action by cities is therefore crucial for climate change mitigation as well as for safeguarding the health and wellbeing of their populations under climate change. Many city governments have made ambitious commitments to climate change mitigation and adaptation and implemented a range of actions to address them. However, a systematic record and synthesis of the findings of evaluations of the effect of such actions on human health and wellbeing is currently lacking. This, in turn, impedes the development of robust knowledge on what constitutes high-impact climate actions of benefit to human health and wellbeing, which can inform future action plans, their implementation and scale-up. The development of a systematic record of studies reporting climate and health actions in cities is made challenging by the broad landscape of relevant literature scattered across many disciplines and sectors, which is challenging to effectively consolidate using traditional literature review methods. This protocol reports an innovative approach for the systematic development of a database of studies of climate change mitigation and adaptation actions implemented in cities, and their benefits (or disbenefits) for human health and wellbeing, derived from peer-reviewed academic literature. Our approach draws on extensive tailored search strategies and machine learning methods for article classification and tagging to How to cite this article: Belesova K, Callaghan M, Minx JC et al. Climate action for health and wellbeing in cities: a protocol for the systematic development of a database of peer-reviewed studies using machine learning methods [version 1; peer review: 2 approved] Wellcome Open Research 2021, 6:50 https://doi. Cities are responsible for 71% to 76% of global energyrelated carbon emissions, including both consumption and production-related emission (Seto et al., 2014) . To limit global average temperature increase to well below 2°C, CO 2 and short-lived climate pollutant emissions need to be reduced to net zero (often abbreviated as the net zero target) within the next 50 years -though some suggest that cities should achieve this much earlier (C40 & Arup, 2017) . The achievement of this deadline would require climate action at all scales: individual, city, national and international levels triggering rapid transformation of the ways in which urban societies operate. In 2015, there were over 10,000 climate actions identified as being undertaken in the 96 cities comprising the C40 cities climate leadership group, with further potential 26,000 actions identified that could be implemented to expand their range of existing climate actions (C40 Cities & Arup, 2015) . However, so far urban climate actions have not resulted in rapid and sustained emission reductions that are required to meet the climate goals of the Paris Agreement (Reckien et al., 2014) . The overall progress on climate change action so far has been seriously inadequate in comparison to the magnitude of the challenge, as global greenhouse gas emissions have been steadily rising. Although a decline of 4 to 7% (2% to 13%) in global CO2 emissions is projected in 2020 due to the measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, those are not suitable for the required sustained long-term emission reduction (Belesova et al., 2020b; Forster et al., 2020; Quéré et al., 2020) . Climate change mitigation and adaptation actions have implications for human health and wellbeing in cities (see Box 1 for definitions). Mitigation actions can produce considerable health and wellbeing benefits for urban residents, for example, through reductions in air pollution, increased levels of active travel, reduced noise levels, more urban greenspace (Gao et al., 2018) . Adaptation actions can benefit health through, for example, reduced risk of extreme weather effects, exposure to vector-borne infectious diseases and greater resilience to socioeconomic shocks (Smith et al., 2014) . Nevertheless, certain climate actions and their implementation may also result in unintended adverse consequences e.g., the use of air conditioning to manage thermal comfort during heatwaves leads to increased electricity consumption and further exacerbation of urban heat reducing the overall health benefits of reduced indoor heat exposure; likewise, building retrofit could, if not implemented correctly, lead, for example, to poor ventilation and accumulation of pollutants generated indoors with adverse effects on health (Li et al., 2014; Shrubsole et al., 2014; Wenz et al., 2017) . • Mitigation: actions that aim to reduce sources or enhance sinks of greenhouse gases (IPCC, 2012). • Adaptation: "the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects" (IPCC, 2012). • Action: tangible actions to alter institutions, technology, policies, programs, built environments, mandates or behaviours in the effort to reduce the rate of cl
Keywords Extracted from PMC Text: C40 Ningbo – the " CPCI-S mitigation/ sub-block OSF MCC Rennes, Nairobi ILCEI – Python scikit-learn CPCI-SSH cancers water CO2 KB Tag Tags A&HCI 2012).*As GHG COVID-19 Aleksandrowicz green carbon Arup NGOs unplanned/ people Health (CUSSH German human joint https://doi.org/10.17037/DATA.00002094 Revision Quéré near-term Berrang-Ford blue space Berrang-Ford ESCI SCI-EXPANDED pre-judge body languages Arabic CUSSH C40 cities
Extracted PMC Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Cities are responsible for 71% to 76% of global energy-related carbon emissions, including both consumption and production-related emission ( Seto et al., 2014). To limit global average temperature increase to well below 2°C, CO 2 and short-lived climate pollutant emissions need to be reduced to net zero (often abbreviated as the net zero target) within the next 50 years – though some suggest that cities should achieve this much earlier ( C40 & Arup, 2017). The achievement of this deadline would require climate action at all scales: individual, city, national and international levels triggering rapid transformation of the ways in which urban societies operate. In 2015, there were over 10,000 climate actions identified as being undertaken in the 96 cities comprising the C40 cities climate leadership group, with further potential 26,000 actions identified that could be implemented to expand their range of existing climate actions ( C40 Cities & Arup, 2015). However, so far urban climate actions have not resulted in rapid and sustained emission reductions that are required to meet the climate goals of the Paris Agreement ( Reckien et al., 2014). The overall progress on climate change action so far has been seriously inadequate in comparison to the magnitude of the challenge, as global greenhouse gas emissions have been steadily rising. Although a decline of 4 to 7% (2% to 13%) in global CO2 emissions is projected in 2020 due to the measures taken in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, those are not suitable for the required sustained long-term emission reduction ( Belesova et al., 2020b; Forster et al., 2020; Quéré et al., 2020). Climate change mitigation and adaptation actions have implications for human health and wellbeing in cities (see Box 1 for definitions). Mitigation actions can produce considerable health and wellbeing benefits for urban residents, for example, through reductions in air pollution, increased levels of active travel, reduced noise levels, more urban greenspace ( Gao et al., 2018). Adaptation actions can benefit health through, for example, reduced risk of extreme weather effects, exposure to vector-borne infectious diseases and greater resilience to socio-economic shocks ( Smith et al., 2014). Nevertheless, certain climate actions and their implementation may also result in unintended adverse consequences e.g., the use of air conditioning to manage thermal comfort during heatwaves leads to increased electricity consumption and further exacerbation of urban heat reducing the overall health benefits of reduced indoor heat exposure; likewise, building retrofit could, if not implemented correctly, lead, for example, to poor ventilation and accumulation of pollutants generated indoors with adverse effects on health ( Li et al., 2014; Shrubsole et al., 2014; Wenz et al., 2017). Box 1. Definitions of key concepts• Mitigation: actions that aim to reduce sources or enhance sinks of greenhouse gases ( IPCC, 2012).• Adaptation: "the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects" ( IPCC, 2012).• Action: tangible actions to alter institutions, technology, policies, programs, built environments, mandates or behaviours in the effort to reduce the rate of climate change and/or adapt to it ( Lesnikowski et al., 2011; Lesnikowski et al., 2013). * • Health: "health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity" ( World Health Organization (WHO), 1948). Although the WHO definition encompasses physical, mental and social health and wellbeing, here we largely reserve the term "health outcomes" for adverse physical and mental health outcomes and use the term 'wellbeing' separately.• Wellbeing: here is used to emphasise the wider psychological and social aspects of human health that determine subjective human wellbeing, as defined by Marsh et al. (2020), understood as a cognitive sense of life satisfaction and pleasant or unpleasant affect (moods and emotions) ( Dodge et al., 2012).*As a part of action we also include "groundwork activities", i.e., activities that prepare conditions for mitigation/adaptation, enable mitigation and adaptation actions, inform and prepare stakeholders for the actions, e.g., vulnerability assessments, adaptation and mitigation research, development of conceptual tools, stakeholder networking, and provision of policy recommendations ( Lesnikowski et al., 2011; Lesnikowski et al., 2013). These often contribute to the capacity to mitigate or adapt to climate change. To our knowledge, there are no comprehensive assessments of collective 'real world' climate actions and their impacts on human health and well-being in cities, including comprehensive databases of publications available for syntheses or syntheses themselves. Lamb et al. used machine learning methods to develop a database of 4,000 urban climate mitigation case studies reported in peer-reviewed literature ( Lamb et
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