changes in mobility pre and post first sars cov 2 vaccination findings from a prospective CORD-Papers-2022-06-02 (Version 1)

Title: Changes in mobility pre and post first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination: findings from a prospective community cohort study including GPS movement tracking in England and Wales (Virus Watch)
Abstract: Abstract Background: Some evidence suggests that individuals may change adherence to public health policies aimed at reducing contact transmission and spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus after they receive their first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. In this study we aim to estimate the rate of change in average daily travel distance from a participant's registered address before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Method: Participants were recruited into Virus Watch starting in June 2020. Weekly surveys were sent out to participants and vaccination status was collected from January 2021 onwards. Between September 2020 and February 2021 we invited 13120 adult Virus Watch participants to contribute towards our tracker sub-cohort which uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to collect data on movement. We used segmented linear regression to estimate the median daily travel distance before and after the first self-reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose. Results: We analysed the daily travel distance of 228 vaccinated adults. Between 157 days prior to vaccination until the day before vaccination the median daily travel distance travelled was 8.9km (IQR: 3.50km 24.17km). Between the day of vaccination and 100 days after vaccination the median daily travel distance travelled was 10.30km (IQR: 4.11 27.53km). Between 157 days prior to vaccination and the vaccination date there was a daily median decrease in mobility of 40m (95%CI: -51m -31m p-value <0.001) per day. After the removal of outlier data and between the vaccination date and 99 days after vaccination there was a median daily increase in movement of 45.0m (95%CI: 25m 65m p-value = <0.001). Restricting the analysis to the 3rd national lockdown (4th of January 2021 to the 5th of April 2021) we found a median daily movement increase of 9m (95%CI: -25m 45m p = 0.57) in the 30 days prior to vaccination and the vaccination date and a median daily movement increase of 10m (95%CI: -60m 94m p-value = 0.69) in the 30 days after vaccination. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of collecting high volume geolocation data as part of research projects and the utility of these for understanding public health issues. Our results are consistent with both an increase and decrease in movement after vaccination and suggest that amongst Virus Watch participants any changes in movement distances post-vaccination are small.
Published: 2021-06-28
DOI: 10.1101/2021.06.21.21259237
DOI_URL: http://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.21.21259237
Author Name: Nguyen V
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/nguyen_v
Author Name: Liu Y
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/liu_y
Author Name: Mumford R
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/mumford_r
Author Name: Flanagan B
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/flanagan_b
Author Name: Patel P
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/patel_p
Author Name: Braithwaite I
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/braithwaite_i
Author Name: Shrotri M
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/shrotri_m
Author Name: Byrne T E
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/byrne_t_e
Author Name: Beale S
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/beale_s
Author Name: Aryee A
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/aryee_a
Author Name: Fong W L E
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/fong_w_l_e
Author Name: Fragaszy E
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/fragaszy_e
Author Name: Geismar C
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/geismar_c
Author Name: Navaratnam A M D
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/navaratnam_a_m_d
Author Name: Hardelid P
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hardelid_p
Author Name: Kovar J
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/kovar_j
Author Name: Pope A
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/pope_a
Author Name: Cheng T
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/cheng_t
Author Name: Hayward A
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/hayward_a
Author Name: Aldridge R W
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/aldridge_r_w
Author Name: Collaborative The Virus watch
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/collaborative_the_virus_watch
Author Name: Rodger, Alison
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/rodger_alison
Author Name: Wijlaars, Linda
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/wijlaars_linda
Author Name: Nastouli, Eleni
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/nastouli_eleni
Author Name: Spyer, Moira
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/spyer_moira
Author Name: Johnson, Anne M
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/johnson_anne_m
Author Name: Gilson, Richard
Author link: https://covid19-data.nist.gov/pid/rest/local/author/gilson_richard
sha: 00e850f0130f4b72a96c595560d24d78be0ee376
license: medrxiv
source_x: MedRxiv; WHO
source_x_url: https://www.who.int/
url: http://medrxiv.org/cgi/content/short/2021.06.21.21259237v1?rss=1 https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.21.21259237
has_full_text: TRUE
Keywords Extracted from Text Content: Virus Watch participants SARS-CoV-2 Virus Watch participants -31m -60m 5th SARS-CoV-2 vaccine SARS-CoV-2 virus -25m -47.5m Pfizer-BioNTech Delta -31m non-household vaccination(11 COVID-19 vaccine children UCL 114m Virus Watch pre-vaccine COVID-19 people line per-day cellular employees lockdown Pfizer/BioNTech contacts passwords People Oxford-AstraZeneca 175.1m Figure 1a UK SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Tracker post-first https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.21.21259237 doi extract UCL's medRxiv -27.9m participants Other/Can't SARS-CoV-2 cell medRxiv preprint Oxford/AstraZeneca 5th Facebook Tracker Esri UK
Extracted Text Content in Record: First 5000 Characters:Background: Some evidence suggests that individuals may change adherence to public health policies aimed at reducing contact, transmission and spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus after they receive their first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. In this study, we aim to estimate the rate of change in average daily travel distance from a participant's registered address before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Method: Participants were recruited into Virus Watch starting in June 2020. Weekly surveys were sent out to participants and vaccination status was collected from January 2021 onwards. Between September 2020 and February 2021, we invited 13,120 adult Virus Watch participants to contribute towards our tracker sub-cohort which uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to collect data on movement. We used segmented linear regression to estimate the median daily travel distance before and after the first self-reported SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose. We analysed the daily travel distance of 228 vaccinated adults. Between 157 days prior to vaccination until the day before vaccination, the median daily travel distance travelled was 8.9km (IQR: 3.50km, 24.17km). Between the day of vaccination and 100 days after vaccination, the median daily travel distance travelled was 10.30km (IQR: 4.11, 27.53km). Between 157 days prior to vaccination and the vaccination date, there was a daily median decrease in mobility of 40m (95%CI: -51m, -31m, p-value <0.001) per day. After the removal of outlier data, and between the vaccination date and 99 days after vaccination, there was a median daily increase in movement of 45.0m (95%CI: 25m, 65m, p-value = <0.001). Restricting the analysis to the 3rd national lockdown (4th of January 2021 to the 5th of April 2021), we found a median daily movement increase of 9m (95%CI: -25m, 45m, p = 0.57) in the 30 days prior to vaccination and the vaccination date, and a median daily movement increase of 10m (95%CI: -60m, 94m, p-value = 0.69) in the 30 days after vaccination. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of collecting high volume geolocation data as part of research projects, and the utility of these for understanding public health issues. Our results are consistent with both an increase and decrease in movement after vaccination and suggest that, amongst Virus Watch participants, any changes in movement distances post-vaccination are small. The UK response to the COVID-19 pandemic has included restrictions on non-essential movement in order to reduce contacts and control transmission (1) . However, the restriction of movement can have a detrimental impact on a wide variety of outcomes such as mental health, domestic accidents, the economy and education (2) . Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 reduces COVID-19 transmission and disease (3) and as a result is a critical part of the strategies to allow more normal societal mixing. However, in the UK context, there are current concerns that misunderstandings about the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine after the first dose may be leading to a reduction in adherence to other public health policies and increased exposure of partially protected individuals (4) . Preliminary research on vaccination in February 2021 found that 41% of over 80s who had their first dose of the vaccine had met another person within 3 weeks. These individuals did not include another household member, care worker or member of their support bubble, indoors which was permitted by the restrictions in place at the time (4) . This is concerning as antibody levels will not have risen in the 1-2 weeks following the first dose of vaccine (5, 6) . Further evidence also suggests that those over the age of 80 are more likely to have a positive polymerase chain reaction test in the first 9 days of a vaccination compared to a control group, which might be explained by increased mobility and contacts between people in the period following vaccination (7) . With the emergence of the Delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV2 variant, which is currently the dominant in the UK (8) , the effectiveness of both the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines are estimated to be 33% against symptomatic disease after a first dose (9) although protection against hospitalisation appears to be much higher (10) . Therefore, if those who are not fully vaccinated increase their level of social contact and mobility after the first dose, their risk of becoming infected and infecting others may also be increased. Understanding movement post-first vaccination is important as it could help policy makers understand how perceived protection from the vaccination programme may negatively offset the effectiveness of other policies designed to reduce transmission. Whilst previous studies have attempted to investigate travel distances after vaccination(11), these were conducted using mobile call data based upon cellular tower location which is considered less accurate compared to GPS location. In this analysis, we aim to quantify the effect
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